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My favorite place essays
Mrs Osmond by John Banville, review: Fine act of about my favorite place, literary imagination. The Man Booker Prize-winning novelist John Banville’s new novel 'Mrs Osmond' picks up where Henry James’s 1881 novel 'The Portrait of a Lady' left off. Publisher defends 'x-rated' scene hidden in Biff, Chip and just s all theme Kipper book. Lee Child gives a master class on essay place, writing a short story in 12 hours. Dissertation Electronic. Stephen King takes aim at Donald Trump's sweeping tax overhaul. About My Favorite Place. 'Trump's no friend of the working man,' says horror author. Hugh Hefner created a magazine that was decades ahead of its time. For Romeo. Manhattan Beach, Jennifer Egan, review: French philosopher says controversial Tintin theory was an experiment. Philosopher criticises media for reporting 'fake news' but still says idea that Tintin is a girl could be argued.
JK Rowling slams Donald Trump over place NFL 'privilege' comments. 'Some people don't get given millions by Daddy, Donnie' Banned Books Week: How censorship threw up some weird bedfellows. It’s Banned Books Week, and this year the UK is taking a bigger role in fighting censorship, writes David Barnett. Harry Potter first edition sells for record ?60,000. Just 500 first editions of the first novel were published in 1997. Research. Tintin is a girl and 'probably asexual', French philosopher claims. Blistering barnacles! Vincent Cespedes says he stumbled on place, the idea when re-reading the comic book series to his children. The Diary of should be underlined, a Bookseller by essay about my favorite place Shaun Bythell, review: Much wry humour. The owner of The Bookshop in Wigtown, Scotland's largest second-hand bookshop, publishes his insightful diaries about bookselling.
What were JRR Tolkien's inspirations when writing The Hobbit? How the first modern English language dictionary was created. Who was Samuel Johnson, what did he do, why is he so important? Today's Google Doodle celebrates a colossus of thinking maps, English literature. Samuel Johnson's 10 finest quotes and witticisms. Today's Google Doodle raises a dish of tea to the man who said, 'Sir, you have but two topics, yourself and me.
I am sick of both' When asked what the Sixties were all about, most people reply: peace, love, happiness. Essay About My Favorite Place. Andy Martin begs to differ, arguing that the decade represented a whole lot more than just sex, drugs and rock ’n’ roll, and that no one has escaped its force and impact – even today. Superman saves undocumented workers from white supremacist in comic. In the essay now never latest Action Comics. Charlie Bucket was supposed to be black. New Jane Austen ?10 banknote enters circulation. John le Carre, A Legacy of Spies, review: Satisfying close to the saga. The great spy novelist's latest book returns to 1963's 'The Spy Who Came in from the Cold' with one of George Smiley's inner circle held to account.
A Life of My Own by Claire Tomalin, review: An extraordinary account. The literary editor and biographer’s memoir is as packed full of incident, famous friends and colleagues as any of about my favorite, her legendary subjects, but it also documents the essay thinking maps many tragedies she has suffered. Essay My Favorite. Man Booker Prize 2017 shortlist announced. Hilary Clinton compares herself to now never, Game of Thrones' Cersei in memoir. Roald Dahl's undervalued adult stories, from Kiss Kiss to essay about my favorite place, Switch Bitch. Essay Now Never. How Dahl brought his macabre, unsentimental outlook to tales which showed adults the ways of the essay place real world.
Roald Dahl letter warning student to 'eschew beastly adjectives' goes. The letter, written in 1980, was recently discovered by quarterly essay journalist Jay Williams – who was surprised by the overwhelming response it received on Twitter. Clinton 'convinced' of Russian collusion with Trump's aides. Should authors' unfinished works be completed? Hemingway's six-toed cats keep all nine lives after braving Irma. Essay About. All 54 cats – and 10 humans – had hunkered down at the Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum in Key West, Florida. Crime writers are perfectly capable of becoming criminals.
Tim Watson-Munro first went to prison when he was 25 – as a prison psychologist. Two decades later he was booted out of the profession for drug offences. In his new book, ‘Dancing with Demons’, he explains that really there is no such thing as the criminal mind any more than there are criminal classes: there is the potential for criminality in every single one of us. Millar time: Why Netflix splashed the cash on the British Stan Lee. Kate Millett, feminist author of Sexual Politics, dies aged 82. And Juliet. The Burning Girl by Claire Messud review: Deep emotional intelligence. Essay My Favorite Place. The Golden House by just that s all Salman Rushdie review: Exhausting – and my favorite deadening. ‘On the Road’ at 60: How Jack Kerouac’s drugged prose became a classic. Children's books with human characters have a bigger moral impact. Children were found to should a title be underlined essay, be more generous when books about morals that featured human protagonists were read to essay about my favorite place, them. How the British superhero survived to make the digital age.
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Economy, comparison, and hierarchy in Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an experiment that elicits differences to provide ideas and essay my favorite, justify analytical standpoints. Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in quarterly essay, a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of essay about, Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and primacy of the should in an, economic in Euro-America to produce a radical constrast. This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Euro-America. Then it focuses on Dakar, where money and relations are two sides of the same coin.
Following the money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the my favorite, local economy, yet vividly condemned in discourses as a local custom preventing the literary essay, full realization of economic development and Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over the economic in Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the text proposes to distinguish between morality and my favorite, values and should, acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between different levels of value and the existence of about, a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is radical and purposely unimaginative.
As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is just essay, radical: comparison has no a priori object. It is an essay place, experiment in which differences are elicited to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. I propose in dissertation, this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal, be treated as a challenge for comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Essay About Place. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of three million. It is the capital of an independent and virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and immigration. It has been a Muslim society for centuries, has been in contact with Europe for nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. In other words, Dakar represents an obvious vantage point for a study of globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Therapy Research Essay. Yet it is essay about my favorite place, not the ideal place for eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of modernity with tradition, of the local with the global, makes it almost impossible to draw a comparison on any given cultural element#x2014;especially the a title be underlined, most enticing for about my favorite place those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it. What kind of just that s all, difference might fuel a comparative experiment in this context?
In this article, I suggest an answer, famously coined by Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and problematic category indeed, and not one of most appealing from an exoticist point of view. Let#x2019;s begin by highlighting different ways of enacting comparison. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for a comparative method that roots out differences and denies the irreducible singularity of the things compared. In the second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of how he began his comparative enterprise and outlines his method. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of historians and anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is essay about my favorite, a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to access the teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the quarterly essay, need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to allow the beginnings of a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on a generic question (#x201C;What is about, a site?#x201D;) that defines the starting point. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question.
It foregrounds difference as the absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon essay for romeo and juliet which comparison draws exclusively. This is essay about, so because, according to Dumont, the meaning of a single feature, however important, can only be grasped from just that theme essay its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. Essay My Favorite. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to the position it occupies. That is to say, from a sociological standpoint it is actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into research, account the relative value of any element within the configuration to which it belongs. Essay About Place. In other words, the hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in each configuration is essential.
However, there is much that is implicit in any configuration and dissertation, especially its fundamental tenets, that is to say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Thus, the issue with comparison is not merely that we cannot avoid #x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to place, deal with the implicit dimension of both #x201C;their#x201D; views and #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only uncover a partial aspect, and quarterly now never, yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on which the analysis can draw afterward. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and an almost endless process. He has always been very elusive on essay my favorite where and how it should start. In his work, the in an, anthropologist appears somehow compelled by ethnography to essay my favorite place, rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).
Drawing on Dumont#x2019;s work on economy as a value in Euro-America, and my ethnography in Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of just lather theme essay, Dakar, in this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the local economy but unanimously condemned in the name of about my favorite, both economic rationality and Islam. I then develop the argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of questions, economies from essay place society. Research Essay. According to Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the economic components of social life in a separate subsystem that subordinates the rest, which took place over the course of the place, nineteenth century, was an literary essay for romeo, exceptional event in human history. Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on Euro-America addressed the autonomy and primacy of the essay place, economic aspect as a key expression of individualism, and as the triumph of for romeo, a form of social life marked by the separation and unresolved tension between economics and politics (Dumont 1977). Essay. He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and s all essay, helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to my favorite, a French audience. 1 He was also a fierce critic of music therapy, Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an my favorite place, economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the just lather essay, definition of the word #x201C;economic.#x201D; Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the term, one formal and the other substantive:
The substantive meaning of economic derives from man#x2019;s dependence for his living upon nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and social environment, in so far as this results in supplying him with the essay about my favorite, means of material want-satisfaction. The formal meaning of economic derives from the essay, logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to a definite situation of my favorite, choice, namely, that between the different uses of means induced by an insufficiency of those means. (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the formalist definition only applied to market economies, whereas the substantive definition was universal, and essay questions and juliet, thus of use to comparative anthropology. This distinction gave rise to a vigorous debate in the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and essay about, substantivist) taking opposite sides on how to identify the economic aspect in comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).
Dumont took an original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in this debate. He argued that, contra Polanyi, the essay, question of the status of the economy in social formations alone could not lead to essay about, an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the empirical existence of #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an external reality present in any given social formation. Quarterly Now Never. On the my favorite, contrary, according to Dumont, the primacy of the economic dimension is not the disembedding of be underlined in an, a fundamental domain of essay, social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is nothing like an economy out there, unless and until men construct such an music therapy essay, object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to disclose an essay about place, error or a truth regarding the literary questions for romeo and juliet, mode of existence of the economy (e.g., Latour and L#x00E9;pinay 2009). From a comparative point a view, the essay my favorite place, economy is a construct, and not a given on which a plurality of competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is beyond discussion. Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the presupposition on which the object of economics is constructed in the location of this same object in Euro-American social formations. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the genesis of essay now never, economics as an intellectual category distinct from politics.
One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an place, implicit hierarchy. It supposes that something else is excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). Just S All. Dumont never sought to define economics, or to compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). My Favorite Place. Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to elicit a value: the that, autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a peculiar feature of Euro-American social formations. The economic category can be defined not in itself, but as a function of its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the economic over essay place the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the genesis of maps, economic ideology by about my favorite considering the consequences of the conflicting relation of literary, value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the essay my favorite, economic process and downgrade the economy to the status of a means for should a title in an achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of weakening or destroying the my favorite, individual as a value.
According to him, In such a case, we should likely return to subordination, unless we are able to produce at short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of our thought, and constraints inherent to our ideology are such that we are not at liberty to decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107) In the second French edition of From Mandeville to Marx , Dumont felt the need to introduce a clarification of his views. Essay Maps. #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in essay my favorite, its natural form, as a value, is excluded from our ideology. It would therefore only be reintroduced in a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont  1985: 132). Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an end and forced, pathological, forms of dissertation, subordination is our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and essay place, especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an in an essay, uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is essay, radically different. This is not a claim on the order of facts that would, for example, call into question the legitimacy of or possibility for a political body to music therapy research essay, act upon the economy as an external, objective reality.
Rather, it is a warning about the limits and constraints exerted by essay my favorite value systems on power, especially on music therapy research essay what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the idea that power or strength of will has an essay, unlimited capacity to fully transform the world in accordance with an ideal and therefore to sift the good aspects, which will be kept, from the bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the power to transform social reality only between certain limits and essay, when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to essay about, understand its limits. His work is haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the dangers and tragic consequences of the music therapy, idea that power can transform society rapidly and fundamentally. Essay. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to essay thinking, teach us, limits that follow from the social nature of man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in the corporate sense of about my favorite, a group that would oppose a resistance to quarterly essay now never, change (brought by another group) in the name of moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the economy illustrates particularly vividly the limits imposed by a system of values. The autonomy of the economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of constraints that seem to impose themselves on social formations that politics is not able to fully control. About. This situation is dramatically illustrated by the consequences of economic and financial globalization in general, especially in electronic, recent years, and portrays the predicaments of Western states that are struggling with markets against a background of financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the my favorite place, autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is literary and juliet, neither the expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of about my favorite place, a power relation between social units and ideas (such as class struggles, the that theme, power of finance, or government corruption). The autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is about my favorite, a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over the whole of society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is also one of the few commentators on Polanyi to explicitly agree with the other major thesis of The great transformation : that the emancipation of the economic domain is a major social and ideological fact, but that at in an essay an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite.
This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by essay about my favorite place a movement of liberalism to quarterly essay, expand the scope of the market, and a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy. Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is a fair illustration of my favorite, what Joel Robbins refers to as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in his contribution to questions, this issue: a value is never homogeneously dominant; it is always found in combination with other values, in this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). About My Favorite Place. Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in the economic field something called otherwise the #x2018;coexistence of opposites.#x2019; It is an empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of essay thinking, mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is that the economic domain is not a comparative object. Essay About My Favorite Place. However, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. In the comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the economy and the limits a value system imposes on quarterly artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against which difference in Dakar, or at essay place least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by highlighting a contrast. In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of money and the idea of a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on the other hand, there is no domain in social life in which money does not play a continuing role. Theme. Money is central to the economy as well as matrimonial relations and kinship (from solidarity between relatives to about my favorite, the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and music therapy research, corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to their religious masters every time they visit them). Thus, everyone seems to be permanently engaged in a quest for what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money.
However, the centrality of essay about place, money in social life, its penetration into the heart of maps, intimacy, the essay, constant haggling and a title be underlined, the seeming generalization of venality, does not imply that sociality is a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. My Favorite. Here, we are skirting the debate on the corrosive power of money, which goes back at least to Greek antiquity, and is one of now never, anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. After intense discussions on money, commodity, and my favorite place, social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Marx and put an end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Robbins 2001). Everyone is now more or less in agreement that the equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an error. This does not mean that the pervasive presence of money in quarterly, Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and about, of no consequence: money is the most valuable form of relationship, and mediates not only commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and meaningful relationship if money is not involved at one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and quarterly essay, friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and about my favorite, how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Obviously, it is scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and have very low incomes, but there is also a deeper, sociological, reason. The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to prayer groups or local associations, and music research essay, so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and especially relatives.
For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of solidarity to me as follows: My family owns this house. There was still room in the courtyard when I got the essay about place, SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and got married. I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and move around. It#x2019;s been a year now. I#x2019;m trying to save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to quarterly essay now never, afford to connect our house to the water mains. From this point of view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for sure. But in my favorite place, fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and talks to dissertation, me about one problem or another.
And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. Essay My Favorite. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is my main problem. The problem is that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from claims and demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by putting their cash out of reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is converted in financial relations. Quarterly Now Never. Some literally put a physical distance between themselves and their money.
For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite side of town. Essay My Favorite. Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to pay the electronic, bus fare to essay about my favorite place, go to the bank and music essay, return home. Most of the time, however, money is put out of reach by converting liquidity into about, mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is should a title in an essay, then given to one member, who is subsequently excluded from receiving the pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to contribute to it. Essay About My Favorite. The meeting process is repeated until each member has received the pot. The order in which they do so is electronic, decided at the beginning of the process, usually by the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the about, tontine). Once money circulates in music therapy essay, a tontine, or is lent to essay about my favorite, someone, or is engaged in should in an, any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for a given period of time. My Favorite. In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. There is then no alternative but to turn down those who ask for help, because cash is not available immediately.
Money is in an essay, thus put out of reach in numerous financial networks. In other words, financial management is based on essay about my favorite place an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). If liquidity, as Keynes stated ( 1973: 293), is literary for romeo and juliet, a link between the essay place, present and the future, it takes the maps, form here not of speculative hoarding, but of place, a network of relations. Literary Essay Questions. Illiquidity preference also means that money is available to irrigate financial networks. The velocity of about my favorite, money is extremely high, because no cash is left idle.
People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is received, it is either spent or converted into literary for romeo and juliet, a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it. Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of essay my favorite place, which has a different temporality, which may be from a few days to several years, hence the importance of synchronization of the financial networks. Financial networks, which are mostly managed by women, are not simply the just s all essay, financial basis of the local economy; because money is the most valuable form of relation, they are also, and above all, the warp and essay my favorite place, woof of sociality. The bombardment image and the idea of social or relational investment are used by my interlocutors to describe their financial practices. These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. The conversion of liquidity into relations is music research, not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. Illiquidity is the means by which people manage their relations. In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the very condition for action. Agency hinges on two elements: firstly, the conversion of essay about, liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of financial relations#x2014;that is, the possibility of having access to cash when it is needed. The trouble here is essay, that the temporality of the various sociofinancial relations in which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in essay my favorite, order to gather large amounts of money, whereas one of the basic propositions of economics is that only markets can synchronize in maps, this way.
Hierarchy: Economy and ceremonial exchanges. Financial relations in the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. On the supply side, the illiquidity preference is indeed a means of making savings and essay about my favorite, thus a way of financing investment, but on the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and problems of should be underlined in an essay, their relatives, in a context where there is essay about my favorite, no distinction between the thinking, money allocated to households and essay place, businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the electronic, rest of their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to successfully synchronize even a small number of sociofinancial networks at my favorite the same time in order to maintain or develop their economic activities. Music Therapy Research Essay. Likewise, because solidarity is always a relation between two individuals, even in the case of an unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in their search for funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is essay about place, able to support them (i.e., in quarterly essay, this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the other hand, ceremonies performed by women for lifecycle events, especially birth and marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). They often involve more than two hundred people and essay about, huge amounts of money. It is not unusual to see more than one year of an entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and put into circulation for a birth ceremony by one woman in a single evening.
In marriage and dissertation, birth ceremonies, women exchange money and clothes to honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to about place, describe the complex logic of the ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by saying that the ceremonial gifts among women in birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value, and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the lather that s all, only events that can ensure the synchronization of essay my favorite place, all of music therapy, a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and essay about my favorite place, their transformation into cash. For example, in essay thinking maps, each tontine (rotating savings and essay place, credit association), the order of recipients is fixed at the beginning of each cycle. Regardless of the purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of them are women) is involved in a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to the top of the list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of just s all theme, money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for one of the main actors of the ceremony they have come to support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Each  ndawtal is recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of essay about, it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). While people who lend money usually struggle to get it back, no one is ever concerned in lather that s all theme, the case of ndawtal . Essay About My Favorite. A woman will commonly receive dozens of these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by essay thinking women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for any other purpose. I carried out a limited survey of 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of overall savings. The sociofinancial system in about my favorite, Dakar has a peculiar morphology.
There are no boundaries between financial spheres of exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to those described by that s all theme essay numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in the 1940s (see also Bloch and Parry 1989). In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in some cases can be overcome by forms of conversion (Guyer 2004). For example, among the Luo of Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in a lottery, or gained from the sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and associated with spirits. It cannot be used for transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. About My Favorite Place. In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to ceremonial exchanges: the origins of money given at a ceremony to honor a relative are of and juliet, no concern to the recipient and vice versa. It very common to use a 500 CFA franc note received at a ceremony for the fare back home, or to my favorite place, purchase the next morning#x2019;s breakfast. Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by relatives by marriage to honor them at a birth or a marriage ceremony.
Urban sociality is comprised of flows of financial relations activated by individuals. It is not structured by morally bounded spheres of exchange. Sociality is hierarchized 6 in terms of essay now never, agency: that is, the capacity to synchronize relations and convert them into cash. Essay. In the local financial system, and thus in sociality, economy is subordinated to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Quarterly. This is not to suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in marriage and birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in absolute terms, more money circulates in the economy than in women#x2019;s ceremonies.
Nor is it the case that the entire economy of Dakar is about my favorite, organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Rather, my argument is quarterly essay now never, that from the point of view of finance and agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to activate (i.e., to synchronize and convert into cash) all the financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is not possible for economic (or any other) purposes. On the my favorite, contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of financial relations, and the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in Dakar is meaningful from a comparative perspective: that is, from the point of view of the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America. I am not contrasting two distinct types of economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). Literary For Romeo And Juliet. My argument rests on the placement of about my favorite, two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and autonomy in lather that s all essay, relation to politics in Euro-America, and subordination in essay about my favorite, relation to ceremonies in Dakar. This comparison both elicits and justifies the purpose of an investigation, and in this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the maps, primacy of these ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is essay my favorite place, a structural fact, but not a matter of morality: men and women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of money. Of course, my interlocutors in Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is prestigious, and even fun.
Everyone, especially women, has a lot to say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is now never, optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and times when one should not spend too much, and so on. My Favorite Place. In other words, everyone has an opinion on a number of issues, and each ceremony gives rise to numerous comments. Organizing and attending and spending large sums of money on lifecycle ceremonies is something of an therapy research, inevitable fact, for essay women in quarterly, particular, even though everyone also complains about the excessive spending, and condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events. The amount of money mobilized and spent in ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money.
Here it is not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. It is so hard for her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to keep something at the end of the essay my favorite place, day. Everybody condemns that. Every one of us. Quarterly Essay Now Never. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. Essay About My Favorite Place. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French].
I am an activist for development. Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about them all the time#x2026;. Dissertation Electronic. But you know, these are just words. My Favorite Place. We only talk. And we do the ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. Should In An. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of this apparent contradiction and the feeling of perplexity that stems from it.
When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and so much money come together on my favorite place these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the same: #x201C;It is essay thinking maps, our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). This answer is hard to understand. The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in common use from Senegal to Indonesia ( aadet ). In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of tradition in the sense of about, continuity, repetition over time, or practices inherited from the past, however, whether from ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Rather, aada means the common, well-established ways of being and doing things. When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of be underlined in an, signifying the difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. Place. But it has never been a justification based on tradition: in fact, the term aada is also often used more or less explicitly to signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from that of others: for example, to compare the lather s all essay, Wolof ways of doing things with those peculiar to other regional ethnic groups such as the Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the idea of following a tradition inherited from the past. Furthermore, the term aada not only signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of institution and practice from another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices.
There are numerous types of my favorite, costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on civility and honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the entry of the bride into just s all, her husband#x2019;s home; the various gifts before ( ruy ) and during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to essay my favorite, and from Mecca; offerings to affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). All of these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern dimension, namely the essay thinking maps, financial aspect of female ceremonies. Place. One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and should essay, Wolof, explained to me: Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. But whenever we can, we lapse into about my favorite, folklore.
Islam condemns it. Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. All of this is aada. Here, we put aada everywhere. Here, we go too far at every opportunity. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is our aada . Custom ( aada ) is also thought of just lather that theme essay, as negative and harmful.
We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in essay my favorite, relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in birth and marriage ceremonies is not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the dissertation electronic, full realization of universal values: development and Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in essay about my favorite, economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on that the Senegalese government by the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in the wake of the debt crisis and my favorite, the neoliberal policies of the last two decades have significantly reduced the role of the postcolonial state, partly to the benefit of be underlined essay, NGOs. About My Favorite Place. Numerous organizations dedicated to just lather that essay, development operate in Dakar. Women are the essay about my favorite, privileged targets and recipients of development assistance funds and microfinance projects. These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to embezzlement but also to ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). In the theme, last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and about, paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of energy and resources to advertising good governance and development. A local consequence of quarterly now never, this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of essay about my favorite, expenditure. This rhetoric was not limited to lather, the public sphere, to politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on development and good governance is echoed by many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in poor suburbs.
My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is essay my favorite, a key sociopolitical goal, and literary questions, also the about place, way most of my interlocutors 8 perceive the future. Development is seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is still to come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Many of these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to research, ceremonies as well as to corruption or patronage. As emphasized by Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for service rendered), the importance of ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the essay about, subject of corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in lather s all theme, the face of an infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of perplexity.
The problem is essay about, identical in the case of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and development). Dissertation Electronic. The money that should be devoted to economic purposes is embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an essay place, inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in general, and ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and condemned in its name. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177). Mostly, however, the issue is not so much one of the allocation of funds per se as the fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an order of value. In the essay maps, late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and family gatherings, or even in everyday life. The discussions focused on the veil, of course, 10 but also on essay place the low-cut necklines of their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the just s all theme, practice of appearing in public wearing sumptuous clothing and make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in family ceremonies (Heath 1992).
The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in general as pre-Islamic unholy practices. Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in essay my favorite place, the name of Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of gifts contradict the temperance and restraint required of every Muslim. Essay. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and about my favorite, an excessive desire for quarterly fame and superiority over others. More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in marriage and birth ceremonies are attributed by many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of Islam.
From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by about my favorite place quoting vintage Bill Clinton. Should Be Underlined In An Essay. In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the current president of Senegal, made a vivid speech in which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in French) in family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Essay My Favorite Place. Yet he is hardly the first. In 1905, in Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by creating a price scale (Geismar 1933). Over the last hundred years, many religious and political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947).
In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for marriage, birth ceremonies, and funerals (Anonymous 1951). Soon after this, the colonial administration adopted the code in the Jacquinot Decree of a title be underlined, September 14, 1951. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on ceremonial spending was passed on essay about my favorite place February 24, 1967 (Law No. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972. It is still in effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the past five decades. Should A Title In An. Not a month goes by in Senegal without heated public discussions launched by a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against the harsh protraction of essay, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in marriages and birth ceremonies. In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the electronic, transformation of essay about place, society against the goodwill of individuals but to control of one element of local social life in order to realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is that everyone, and not only political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to just s all, the economic and moral wellbeing of individuals and the future of society in general. Essay About Place. But over the last century, the countless condemnations and numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at all.
So far, the situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is considered as a sort of essay questions, mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to act reprehensibly. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at the core of their own social life in the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by about my favorite the consequences of the autonomy and primacy of the literary essay for romeo and juliet, economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by essay about my interlocutors in now never, Dakar, is essay about, generated by dissertation the impossibility of recognizing value as such in the realm of about my favorite, discourse when it comes to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to put it differently, the paradoxical moral contradictions that result in perplexity on the part of actors facing the electronic, limits of about, artificialism are indicators (for the anthropologist) that values are at stake. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the for romeo, full realization of Islam and development. Condemnation of ceremonies represents the way contradiction is resolved in the realm of moral discourse and justification. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to justify them. Yet the essay about my favorite place, primacy of that essay, ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on ideology are usually cryptic and mislead a lot of his readers.
However, the originality of his view is to claim that since the fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to be implicit, only comparison can evince the necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by essay about which the different parts of an ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and music therapy research, economic development against each other is essay about my favorite place, framed as a moral issue relating to the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is wasted on women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to that s all essay, economic development. I described above the intimate link between money and sociality. Because the about, basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the dissertation electronic, preference for illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to their moral preferences. Essay About. Financial resources are elicited from others: the amount of money collected depends almost entirely on the social actors#x2019; opportunity to synchronize relations for thinking maps a given purpose. My Favorite Place. Here, moral discourse and should a title essay, the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to my favorite place, Islam, it is literary, not simply opposed to ceremonies as another potential alternative in about my favorite, the allocation of financial resources; the literary essay, problem is that ostentatious behavior and financial exuberance in women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the Muslim morality of temperance and restraint.
Furthermore, the path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is thought to be universal, but above all represents the highest value order, that of absolute submission of the individual to God. It means abiding by about my favorite place what is music research essay, commanded in the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the essay about my favorite place, Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for a wedding ( takk ) or for naming a newborn ( tuddu ). According to all my interlocutors, the a title essay, rituals recommended by Islam ( takk and tuddu ) are the only ones that need to be carried out when (respectively) a couple is married or a baby is born. However, Islam and about place, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in quarterly essay, the ritual organization of the lifecycle. On the occasion of a marriage or the birth of a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to honor kinship relations. Place. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in themselves. Quarterly Essay. To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in birth and marriage rituals are the manner in which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only should we acknowledge the value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in the name of Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to two complementary orders of value in a hierarchical relation: on the one hand, that of essay about, Islam, which is a universal and literary for romeo and juliet, transcendent order that defines the relationship between the individual and God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on the other hand, at a subordinate level, the ceremonial agency of about my favorite place, women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and clothing implement, as it were, the s all theme, relations created (among men) in Muslim rituals under the auspices of God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the my favorite, relations created in the order of Islam will have no value and no effect as relations. Although it is not made explicit by social actors, it is a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to play its part, and essay now never, which structures the sociality of Dakar. This configuration is about my favorite, not a mere #x201C;coexistence of opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in the case of maps, economics and politics in Euro-America. In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors.
In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. In other words, the way values relate to essay about my favorite, each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases. From a comparative point of view, in the Euro-American case, economics and politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to fully realize the individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. It a question of power. In Senegal, on the other hand, Islam and ceremonial exchanges in lifecycle events have been opposed for at least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the issue of ever-rising expenditure in family ceremonies is far from essay thinking maps new. Essay About My Favorite Place. The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for more than a century, religious and political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Ceremonial practices have evolved over time. However, the ethnography of the mid-1970s on the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming).
This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only a superficial impact: on the contrary, the transformations brought about by the city are far from superficial or meaningless. For example, in Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of as the basis of essay and juliet, kinship and social organization in this region. Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. The role of kinship networks in African cities is well known in the organization of residential systems, the urban integration of essay my favorite place, migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995). In Dakar, however, kinship is not only just lather that a network capital that is mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on the contrary, every sociofinancial network is susceptible to being mobilized to finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the my favorite, #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by the city fueled, and thus shed light on, a trend in Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of essay, possible (financial) relations is extremely high: people can potentially take part in a large number of about my favorite, financial networks of various sizes. Secondly, in Dakar, most women are involved in income-generating activities, and they also manage household finances. Accordingly, the amounts of liquidity managed by women are also very significant.
These two dynamics (more relations and more money) combine with the preference for illiquidity. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the amounts collected by women for birth and marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of therapy research, money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an isolated feature. It is not proof of a fundamental difference between social formations. In Euro-America, marriage and about, birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of expense, but in Dakar, money and relations are two sides of the dissertation, same coin: the financial system is the other side of sociality. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on the illiquidity preference and the synchronization of sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in about, which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to synchronize all types of financial relations. The primacy of ceremonies and the subordinate position of the economic aspect in Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America.
However, following Dumont, this difference is merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in a broader configuration. Quarterly Essay Now Never. Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over economics in Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to my favorite, a distinction between morality and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an lather that theme, #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between the about my favorite place, various levels of value and, possibly, the existence of a hierarchy that is a configuration in which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the same social formation. Finally, the persistence and development of women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to unavowed values. But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the will to should be underlined in an essay, change, whether it be in regard to lavish spending on women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. Essay About My Favorite Place. If there is a political stance to be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. It is worth noting that, thirty-six years after the first edition of quarterly, his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in individualist social formations.
He concluded with a comment on about my favorite place Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of therapy research essay, Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37). 15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of hierarchy in individualist terms, and AA is an example of the limits to and conditions for change. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is my favorite, simple: the patient is electronic, doomed to fail as long as he feels able to tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to trying to essay my favorite, pull oneself up by one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for getting out of this vicious circle is for music therapy essay the subject to understand that he cannot be defined independently of about my favorite place, his dependency; and that solely the recognition of his self-will, the just that s all theme, acceptance of a more comprehensive and powerful addiction, can allow him to escape his torment. (Dumont  1987: 237) To summarize, according to Dumont, an alcoholic is about, confronted by a seeming paradox: on the basis of his ideals, he believes in his own free will and independence, but empirically he is an addict. And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of his salvation is the full recognition of electronic, his addiction, before resting on essay about my favorite place another to overcome the former. If one can generalize, the lesson is harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds.
1999. Money and modernity: State and local currencies in essay now never, contemporary Melanesia . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Essay. Steps to should essay, an ecology of essay my favorite, mind . New York: Ballantine. Bloch, Maurice, and Jonathan Parry, eds. 1989. Money and the morality of exchange . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bohannan, Paul.
1955. #x201C;Some principles of exchange and investment among the Tiv.#x201D; American Anthropologist 57 (1): 60#x2013;70. Buggenhagen, Beth. 2012. Muslim families in global Senegal: Money takes care of shame . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Comaroff. 1990, #x201C;Goodly beast, beastly goods: Cattle and commodities in a South African context.#x201D; American Ethnologist 17 (2): 195#x2013;216.
Detienne, Marcel. Comparing the incomparable . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. 1985. La famille wolof: Tradition et changement . Paris: Karthala. Dumont, Louis. (1951) 1987. Essay Thinking. La Tarasque: Essai de description d#x2019;un fait local d#x2019;un point de vue ethnographique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1977.
From Mandeville to Marx: The genesis and triumph of economic ideology . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. (1977) 1985. Homo Aequalis I: Gen#x00E8;se et #x00E9;panouissement de l#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie #x00E9;conomique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1980. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications . Translated by Mark Sainsbury, Louis Dumont, and essay about my favorite place, Basia Gulatit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1983. #x201C;Pr#x00E9;face.#x201D; In La grande transformation: Aux origines politiques et #x00E9;conomiques de notre temps , Karl Polanyi, i#x2013;xx. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;.
1986. Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Music Therapy Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991. Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . Paris: Gallimard.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1994. German Ideology: From France to Germany and back . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. 1933. Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and place, the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. 2003.
Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . Paris: La Decouverte. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2006. #x201C;Women and money: Lessons from Senegal#x201D;, Development and Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. Dissertation Electronic. 2004. Essay About Place. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.
1992. #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and s all theme essay, heteroglossia in my favorite place, urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. 1995. Should A Title In An. #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and the state . Berkeley: University of essay my favorite, California Press.
Isaac, Barry. 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by James G. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. (1936) 1973. The general theory of employment, interest, and money . London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and essay now never, Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. 1997.
L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Essay About Place. Paris: Karthala. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Music Therapy Essay. 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the struggle for survival.#x201D; International Review of Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. 2004. Essay About My Favorite Place. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by essay thinking maps Isabelle Guerin and essay place, Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.
1992. Le don et le recours . Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. 1999. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of quarterly essay, Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: The political and essay about my favorite, economic origins of just lather s all essay, our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Essay Place. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and markets in the early empires , edited by Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arsenberg, and Harry W. Pearson, 243#x2013;70.
New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline. 1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Music Therapy Research. Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. 1947. Essay About Place. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. 1989. Bitter money: Cultural economy and some African meanings of music research essay, forbidden commodities . Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the English crowd in essay about my favorite place, the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994. Essay. The social meaning of money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. My Favorite. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical.
Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique. Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is a former economist who converted to social anthropology under the influence of just lather that s all theme, his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of essay, Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at that s all theme essay the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and a member of the Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). Essay. His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of should a title essay, representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.
1. Dumont (1983) wrote the about, preface to the French edition of The great transformation . 2. Should Be Underlined In An. The idea of an economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to the progress of knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Many of these assume, for that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. Political economy, according to essay about, Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the very discovery of the existence of society in essay thinking, the modern sense. My Favorite. Humans are linked by relations of economic interdependence. They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to thinking, laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and then honoring ( teral ) the giver for his or her previous gift with an essay about my favorite place, identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of reciprocity. 6. In the Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269). 7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and his sisters (in a very broad sense; the term for sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well.
Both the husband and his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is composed of a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. Zakat ( sarax in Wolof), the obligatory almsgiving to the poor, is the third pillar of Islam. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to help health centers, schools, or the literary essay questions for romeo and juliet, poor). 10. Most women in Dakar are not veiled. 11. Such leaders are renowned for the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in their families (except in the case of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis). 12.
Islam has been a major component of Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. In Wolof, yoon means both the way, the essay about, law, justice, and religion. 14. In his contribution to this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about therapy research, how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.
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My Favorite Place Essay
Trust Thyself Every Heart Vibrates To That Iron String Essays and Research Papers. 0) If you did not finish Activity 8.5.2, complete it as part of your FNT’s. 1. If you did not ?nish Activity 8.5.2, complete it as part of essay your FNT’s. 1) . (Solidification) 2. (Solidi?cation) A 2m long string vibrates in the 3rd harmonic (n=3) with an amplitude of A 2 m long string vibrates in the 3rd harmonic (n=3) with an amplitude of just that s all essay 2 cm at my favorite place a frequenc 2cm at a frequency of 50Hz. Hz. a. Sketch the standing wave on the picture below. a) Sketch the standing wave on the picture below. . Guitar , Sound , Standing wave 605 Words | 3 Pages. String theory is defined by Merriam-Webster as, A physical theory in which one-dimensional loops travel through space and also merge and lyse . Just Lather That Theme! as time elapses. This is in contrast to ordinary quantum field theory, which predicts point particles that emit and absorb each other. Place! String theory is a candidate for a Theory of Everything. Electronic! String theory would solve the long fight between Einstein's theory of about place relativity and Quantum Physics. Quarterly Essay! String theory proclaims that everything in our universe, from.
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For Socrates believed that if you didn't know yourself, or seek to know yourself. Ethics , Know thyself , Knowledge 1064 Words | 3 Pages. reminded of the phrase Circle of Trust . The words are simple enough, but the meaning behind it is so profound. Essay Now Never! According to Palmer, the . circle of trust is not just about familiar and about my favorite comfortable relationships between family, friends and loved ones. The circle of trust is truly about the that theme essay, relationship that a person builds or creates within every space of their lives. Rather that space be your personal life, your cultural interactions or your vocational life. A circle of trust can form wherever two or three. Circle , Ethics , Focus 1028 Words | 4 Pages. 19/03/13 The relationship of the soul to the body in Life in the Iron Mills In Life in the Iron Mills the bodies of the . miners have been invaded by their environment.
The barriers of their skulls and skin have been breached and their hearts and souls are as smeared with soot as their hands. They are likened time and essay place again to dissertation electronic cats, dogs and horses, “dumb”, “stunned” beasts whose humanity flickers weakly under piles of pig iron and dirt. Davis not only attacks the false ideal of the about my favorite, healthy, masculine. Buddhism , Iron , Iron ore 2107 Words | 5 Pages. My Part: Know thyself , and an unexamined life is not worth living.
Socrates was a an essay, eminent classical Greek Athenian philosopher played a . major role in my favorite the contribution of philosophy. Should! As for being the most influential thinker of the fifth century, he also had a fairly strong educational background in music, geometry, and gymnastics. Essay About Place! Socrates had a comparable way in soughing to genuine knowledge, almost just as the way the Sophist’s did it. Though his beliefs had no writing, it is word of mouth. Aristotle , Ethics , Happiness 911 Words | 3 Pages. viewpoint of what it took to a title be underlined in an find love, by my favorite place, first finding herself. Alike, from Ralph Waldo Emerson’s excerpt Self-Reliance and Henry David Thoreau’s essay . Civil Disobedience, these transcendentalist thinkers also believed individuals should be able to trust their selves to make the right decisions in essay life by following their instincts, and to not abide to society’s obligations. And so, the readers are shown how society was the puppeteer, while Janie was the puppet lost in the mist of unfit marriages and.
Civil disobedience , Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau 1617 Words | 4 Pages. your private heart is true for all men”(132),trusting yourself and being honest with the person you are inside are what you need to be an . individual. Essay Place! This is the massage that Emerson tries to give us through his essay “Self-Reliance” . Emerson’s essay implies that to an independent or individual you have to have trust in just lather that yourself, thoughts, opinions, and essay place feelings. You need to accept the person that you are truly are inside because Everybody is born possessing every things he needs. Idea , Individual , Mind 417 Words | 3 Pages. If gold rust what iron will do People are born with the insatiable desire to find somebody perfect.
We spend our whole lives ransacking the . world for essay thinking maps the immaculate human being who deserves our boundless reverence and whom we should emulate. We are on an unceasing quest to find our own paragon of virtue. But what a treacherous thing it is to believe that a person is more than just a person! (John Green) The inherent thing in people is that we are fallible creatures. We have unfounded high self-esteem. Corrosion , English-language films , Gautama Buddha 841 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Rental Heart When you are in love you are in a very vulnerable place. You completely trust another person.
If this person . decides to leave you, he or she is breaking that trust . Even though things perhaps just did not work out, you were heading in different directions, or whatever the reason for essay about place a breakup might be, it is going to thinking maps hurt. You have lived with a person who you completely trusted and about now you have to live without that person. This can be very hard to should essay deal with. For some people it. Character , Emotion , Fiction 1188 Words | 3 Pages. ?From The Heart By: . ZainabNafiu Goal I have a goal to make everybody happy for about my favorite place the rest of their life My goal is working everyday Can someone help me to get them happier? If I had one wish it’s to know I found out what it is It’s really me and my happiness. Beautiful You are beautiful like a star You shine so bright in essay questions for romeo the dark Don’t go away please will you come back. 2001 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 610 Words | 3 Pages. What is the most important line in Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”?
Why? The most important line in Emerson’s “Self Reliance”, is “ Trust . thyself : every heart vibrates to that iron string .” (538) In other words, “if you trust yourself, then you will be strengthened by your decisions and actions.” Similarly, if you don’t consider and are not pressured by essay place, other’s thoughts, you will live a life solely based on what appeases you. Emerson believes that God is everywhere, present to inspire each individual. Ralph Waldo Emerson , Self-Reliance , Sociology 548 Words | 2 Pages. TRUST IN THE MILITARY What is one of the most important elements used in relation building in the military? . Trust , personal growth from friendships becomes challenging without the presents of this crucial element. Without trust , individual’s confidence in all echelons of therapy research essay leadership and their subordinates ability to complete missions would diminish a unit’s morale and loyalty. Friendships are constructed over about place, time through the innuendo of mutual trust . Time is the should be underlined in an essay, only factor. Armed forces , Army , Leadership 882 Words | 3 Pages. Friendship is a necessary aspect of every human's life, as we are not self sufficient in and of ourselves (Other Selves, pg.
30). Despite its . necessity, in some cases we are either forced or morally required to end these relationships. When the essay, trust between two parties has been broken, the lather theme essay, loyalty of the friendship is soiled, and it is therefore a true and just action to end the friendship. First, let's define what it means to be a friend. Friends can be described as: an about, intimate associate. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Laelius de Amicitia 1762 Words | 5 Pages. fills the imagination?
The consciousness of literary and juliet a train of great days and victories behind.” In summary, if you ridicule someone, you always will. Who ever you . are, be a good one. “Insist on yourself; never imitate. My Favorite! Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of music a whole life's cultivation; but of the essay, adopted talent of essay maps another, you have only an extemporaneous, half possession. That which each can do best, none but his Maker can teach him.” Emerson would walk around the essay about, mall. Concord, Massachusetts , Meaning of life , Mind 1209 Words | 3 Pages.
Erik Pena Intro to should in an essay Philosophy Robert Bogner October 29th 2012 Establishing trust in God’s Plan The commandment coming from a sovereign . God “Take your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains I will tell you about,” are words strike our hearts , and give us a sense of immorality and brutality from God. As we read these lines for the first time, we do not recognize that we do not know Abraham, we. Abraham , Bible , Binding of essay about my favorite place Isaac 1847 Words | 5 Pages. Heart of Darkness has been considered for most of this century not only as a literary classic, but as a powerful indictment of the evils of . imperialism. It reflects the dissertation electronic, savage repressions carried out in the Congo by the Belgians in one of the largest acts of genocide committed up to essay about my favorite place that time. Just S All Theme! Conrad's narrator encounters at the end of the about, story a man named Kurtz, dying, insane, and questions and juliet guilty of unspeakable atrocities. More recently, African critics like Chinua Achebe have pointed out that the story. Black people , The Feelies , White people 2028 Words | 3 Pages. ?Austin March English 12 Honors Mrs.
Freeze 9 September 2014 Racism within Heart of Darkness What is racism? How can someone be classified as . a racist? According to about Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, racism is classified as the music research essay, poor treatment of or violence against people because of about my favorite place their race, or the belief that some races of people are better than others. Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness has been considered a major turning point for authors and other works because his style of writing was different. African American , An Image of Africa: Racism in dissertation electronic Conrad's Heart of Darkness , Chinua Achebe 943 Words | 3 Pages. Captive of a G-String: Analysis of Literary Techniques in Nicola Barker's Short Story ''G-String''
Captive of a G- string : An Analysis of literary techniques in Nicola Barker’s short story “G- String ” Nicola Barker’s short . My Favorite Place! story “G- string ” relates the troubles of a middle-aged woman with her self-confidence, how she fails to achieve the respect and admiration she seeks from her boyfriend Mr. Kip, as well as how she struggles to attain a certain idea of questions herself as a modern woman by wearing a G- string . With a humorous tone and use of the G- string as a symbol, Barker allows us to essay my favorite follow her protagonist. Lingerie , Short story 1844 Words | 5 Pages. ? The Iron Giant Quote: “A dog is a man’s best friend.” This is literary essay questions and juliet, a well-known saying, and with dogs being domesticated . animals and essay my favorite loved by society, a saying that men would be proud to literary essay for romeo say. But what about a boy - what is my favorite place, a boy’s best friend?
In this movie, a boy’s best friend would be a giant robot, the and juliet, Iron Giant. The Iron Giant is essay about my favorite, about a giant robot that fell from the music therapy research, sky and landed near a place called Rockwell. One night, a boy by the name of Hogarth, heard a sound in. Animation , Animator , Film 1102 Words | 3 Pages. TO THEIR VALIDITY. The power which resides in him (any individual) is new in nature. Society everywhere is in essay my favorite place conspiracy against the manhood of . every one of its members. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind. Now Never! To be great is to be misunderstood. Trust thyself : every heart vibrates to that iron string . Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist. 4. To what extent are Emerson's ideals reflected in contemporary American life (i.e., movies, television.
Concord Hymn , Concord, Massachusetts , Poetry 433 Words | 2 Pages. married his second wife, Lydia Jackson, and settled in Concord Massachusetts (“Ralph Waldo Emerson” poets.org). They had four children, but only three . survived. Essay My Favorite Place! Emerson had to live and support his family, and his only way to do this was by lecturing. Music Research! Every year he made a lecture tour which gradually extended farther west.
When he was not on a tour, he lived very quietly, studying and essay my favorite place reading. He stood aside from active participation in public movements, until slavery got under his skin. This made him. American poets , Concord, Massachusetts , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1564 Words | 4 Pages. The Speed of Trust In Stephen M. R. Covey’s The Speed of Trust : The One Thing That Changes Everything, he gives some great . Dissertation! tips on how to gain, keep, and rebuild the trust of essay about my favorite others, whether they be coworkers, family members, customers, or complete strangers.
He emphasizes the importance of maps trust in every relationship, purporting that relationships are built on and sustained by trust . And even the best relationships can be broken and destroyed by essay my favorite, lack of trust . Dissertation Electronic! Without trust , actions are misinterpreted. 2126 Words | 7 Pages. Consider the ancient imperative know thyself . How can different ways of knowing help us as individuals and communities to achieve this goal? . Essay About My Favorite Place! Shakespeare once said, Life is but a stage and essay thinking maps men merely players on it. In order for us to become main characters on essay about my favorite place, this stage, instead of mere extras, we must be able to truly identify who we are as individuals first. After this has been accomplished we can find out how we can benefit our society. When complete self-awareness, self-knowledge. Biology , Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson 929 Words | 3 Pages. Opposition of Light and Dark in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. The use of the word “darkness” in the title of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness immediately alludes to its relevance to the story, but in essay an . unexpected way.
While the contrast of about place light and dark, white and black, and good and electronic evil is a common theme in Heart of Darkness, Conrad essentially reverses the meanings of what is essay my favorite place, “light,” or good, and what is “dark,” or evil. Heart of Darkness is about the essay now never, penetration of a corrupt light into darkness, and about the consequences that result when the purity of the darkness. Black people , Darkness , Joseph Conrad 1339 Words | 3 Pages. | Trust and relationship issues | 4Q-DRC401X-AB213-07-Principles of for romeo Conflict Resolution-Fall 2010 | | Anthony Kemp | 12/12/2010 | . | Trust is a basic building block for about my favorite place all types of relationships. There should be one constant from the relationship of a newborn baby with its mother, to essay the relationship of about my favorite allied countries, and any other relationship in between. That one constant should be trust . Without trust it is extremely difficult for any relationship to be maintained.
2009 singles , Faith , Marriage 2153 Words | 6 Pages. The Real Heart Of Darkness Heart of Darkness is not only the title of Joseph Conrad's novella, it is literary essay and juliet, also a main theme. This is . portrayed through different images of darkness, black and evil throughout his story. The setting is often used with images of darkness; even as Marlow tells his tale, it is night. This ?darkness' is inside many concepts of the novella such as Africa, women, black people, maps, the ivory trade corporation and Kurtz. Through these images on his journey, Marlow has a realization. Black people , Heart of Darkness , Joseph Conrad 1004 Words | 3 Pages. help.
Every time he speaks, everybody listens. About! No matter how bad the situation is, every one will listen to his word and . interpret it the current situation. Over time, His Majesty the King has given leadership, inspiration, comfort, encouragement and therapy research wisdom to to not only the Thai people but also people around the world. According to the constitution, his role as a King is to my favorite place be just a symbol. Although His Majesty possesses no power, he has a powerful invisible power. He has a trust and essay respect. Bhumibol Adulyadej , Constitutional monarchy , Coronation 1560 Words | 4 Pages. ideas something what is true and fault.
And I think parents really need to spend more time with their child. For example, when I was child, my mother always . taught me to do the right things, but I don’t understand what is right and what is wrong. So every time when I was doing wrong things, my mother would hold me back and taught me that is about, wrong. It is make me to know what is dissertation electronic, true and what is wrong. I really thank my mother cares about my favorite me, because if she doesn’t cares about me, I may go to questions and juliet a wrong.
Dog , Guy de Maupassant , Inspector 2212 Words | 5 Pages. Project report on: Consumer Trust – Flipkart Subject: Consumer Behaviour Submitted to: Prof. Neha Gupta Submitted by: Ami Vora Roll . No: 58 Class: PGDM - Communications FLIPKART is an Indian e-commerce company founded by Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal in 2007, both alumni of the essay place, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. Initially funded by the Bansals themselves with Rs.400,000, Flipkart has since then raised funding from venture capital funds Accel India in 2009 and Tiger Global (US$10. Consumer behaviour , Customer , Customer service 1409 Words | 5 Pages. there are two issues in essay thinking this appeal. The first is concerned with the nature of the so-called “Quistclose trust ” and . the requirements for its creation. The second arises only if the first is answered adversely to essay the appellant. It is whether his conduct renders him liable for having assisted in a breach of trust .” Lord Millett in Twinsectra Ltd v Yardley and Others  2 AC 164 at paragraph 52. Critically. Constructive trust , Contract , Debt 1568 Words | 5 Pages.
Self-reliance was a speech before it became an quarterly, essay so many people listening to essay my favorite place Emerson speak at events would have most likely heard it. He is targeting his . audience at young and medium aged men. Message- The message of this essay is just that s all, that humans should trust themselves and not be slaves to about society. They need to think and act for themselves instead of leading lives controlled by others. Context- Self-reliance was written around 1836 in America. Emerson’s wife had just died about five years before and. Concord, Massachusetts , Michel de Montaigne , Person 691 Words | 2 Pages.
that can lead to someone getting offended. It seems that in everyday life there is something someone can always lie about. In my opinion, I think lying is . wrong and that people should always tell the truth, because everyone you come into contact will trust you. If you do lie, the truth will eventually come out, and if you do not lie you will have a clean conscious. Lying does not do you or anyone else any good; it does not resolve anything.
Perhaps at first if you are a good liar. 2009 singles , Black-and-white films , Friendship 1338 Words | 4 Pages. Emersonian Influences on Ben Franklin's Autobiography This essay shows how Emerson's philosophy of Transcendentalism is shown in Franklin's essay. Uses citations from Emerson's Self-Reliance. thanks to his self-imposed education and trust in should in an essay his natural abilities, Franklin founded The Pennsylvania Gazette in 1730. Franklin achieved . the unthinkable in essay about my favorite his lifetime because he did not stop, as so many would, when he was met with adversity. Franklin did not conform to society's standard by giving up when faced with a barrier. Instead of quitting, he acted as a transcendentalist would have: [t]rust thyself ; every heart vibrates to essay thinking maps that iron string . Accept the place the divine providence.
Benjamin Franklin , Cotton Mather , Ralph Waldo Emerson 1056 Words | 3 Pages. Congestive Heart Disease The main function of about place a healthy heart is to essay and juliet ensure proper blood flow throughout the body and supplying . all the organs with the nutrients that are necessary for survival. Essay My Favorite Place! Congestive heart failure (CHF) is also known as Congestive heart disease, but for this paper we will use failure, Consistent with the research. Essay! Congestive heart failure is a disease that primarily causes the heart to be compromised. This leaves the heart unable to perform the main function of about my favorite place pumping blood. Artery , Blood , Heart 1888 Words | 7 Pages. st and thinking maps Ethics Trust and Ethics - Assignment 1-2 By: Derrick Williams Professor: Tony Bonina May 20, 2012 Building . trust is critical in the establishment and success of any relationship. Without trust , partnerships are destined to experience turbulence.
Even our most habitual daily activities necessitate some form of about my favorite place trust --be it presumed or earned. For example, one may assume a barber working in a well-established salon is trained, skilled and licensed to essay properly cut and style hair. Bob Harper , Business ethics , Ethics 1366 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Rental Heart When you are in essay my favorite love it’s like everything in literary for romeo and juliet your life seems better, but when you break up and your heart . breaks it’s like everything that was good before shatters. But what if there was a way for you not to feel the heartbreak. That’s the essay about, reality in the story “The rental heart ”. In the story we get introduced to a world where instead of feeling the quarterly essay, pain of heartbreaks, you can just change your heart at essay place the local heart rental place. The main character in music the story is a person. Character , Fiction , Love 1188 Words | 3 Pages. Good morning!
Today I’m going to my favorite talk about artificial heart as one of the most significant invention in theme essay the history of humanity. An . artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart . Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the essay about place, heart in case heart transplantation is impossible. Since the essay thinking, late nineteenth century, scientists have tried to essay my favorite place develop a mechanical device that could restore oxygen to the blood and remove. Artificial heart , Cardiology , Children's Hospital Boston 867 Words | 3 Pages. Teaching Guide Building Trust (DVD Title: Building Trust in a Large Organization) LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE: TEACHING OBJECTIVES: . Just That Theme! Manager must win the trust • Importance of building trust of over 500 employees in his with people when leading a large team Understandcall center team to motivate ing how to earn the trust them to maximize customer of about place subordinates who are different than you satisfaction. LEADERSHIP DECISION AND RESULT: Manager ?nds a common ground with people, learns their names, changes.
Copyright , Leadership , Leland Stanford 1432 Words | 6 Pages. people are considerably overweight. Music Therapy Research Essay! To be exact two out of every three Americans are overweight one third of which are considered obese. . People who are overweight can have multiple problems and diseases in the long run due to being overweight. One of about my favorite place those diseases is therapy essay, heart disease. About My Favorite! A couple reasons why people are so overweight are lack of exercise, poor diet, and unfortunately also heredity. Heredity is major factor when dealing with heart disease or any disease in general. Since genes are a factor. Cardiology , Heart , Heart failure 940 Words | 3 Pages. that can be interpreted in so many different ways, but every interpretation results in added depth in his stories.
In Poe’s “The Tell-Tale . Heart ,” he includes a multitude of symbols that add layers of dissertation electronic meaning and keep the reader off balance until the very end. Things are not always as they seem, Edgar Allan Poe has hidden symbols that really need to essay be thought about to even be considered. Two of Poe’s hidden symbols in his “The Tell-Tale Heart ” are the idea of essay thinking home and about my favorite the darkness of the old man’s. Edgar Allan Poe , Gothic fiction , Symbol 1634 Words | 4 Pages. Heart of Darkness By S. Dissertation Electronic! Hanford Joseph Conrad’s novella Heart of Darkness is place, much more than simply “the story of should be underlined a journey . up a river.” Although it was first published in 1902, the text contains perennial themes that remain relevant to a 21st Century audience today. Essay About Place! Through his writing, Conrad cleverly expresses his views on colonisation and imperialism, explores the depth and concept of the inner journey, and comments on society’s need for some form of restraint. Conrad draws on electronic, his own personal. 21st century , Apocalypse Now , Black people 1575 Words | 4 Pages. Integrative Paper: The Heart of Change Bridget J. Capers MNGT 5590: Organizational Behavior Instructor: Francis Lonsway December 6, . 2011 Introduction The book “The Heart of Change” is about my favorite place, a book of real-life stories of four hundred individuals from one-hundred and thirty businesses. Thinking! According to Kotter and Cohen, organizations change when their people change.
And, people change for emotional reasons. Kotter and Cohen warn against relying on spreadsheets. Barriers , Change management , Leadership 1844 Words | 6 Pages. Heart Disease Many may or may not be surprised to my favorite place know the number one killer in America for dissertation both men and women is heart . disease. America has become increasingly over weight by over eating, eating unhealthy and not getting enough exercise. We have been alerted that each year we are becoming more and more obese at a alarming rate. Heart disease has been known to kill more people than any of the cancers combined by causing heart attacks and strokes.
There are many causes to essay place heart disease by choices. Atherosclerosis , Blood , Cardiology 1238 Words | 4 Pages. The Rental Heart Kirsty Logan is an award-winning writer. She was born in just that s all essay 1984 and is currently living in essay about my favorite Glasgow with her Girlfriend. The . Just That Essay! Rental Heart is a science-fiction short story, which takes place in the future.
The short story is about a person, who, throughout his/her life, has to replace his/her heart every time he/she finds a new lover. The replaceable hearts are mechanical hearts , which apparently function like normal flesh- hearts even though the mechanical hearts literally shatter. Fiction , First-person narrative , Friendship 798 Words | 2 Pages. Ralph Waldo Emerson Questions and Letter to the Editor. Questions 1. According to the first sentence what does every person realize at some moment in his/her education? At the same moment in . his/her education, every person realizes that envy is essay about place, ignorance, that imitation will get you know where, and essay questions that you have to accept yourself, the good parts and the bad. Essay About! 2. What is the opposite of self-reliance, according to Emerson?
The opposite of self-reliance to Emerson is therapy, conformity. 3. What does Emerson see as the most sacred aspect of. Capitalism , Control , Economics 763 Words | 2 Pages.
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Favorite Place Essay Examples | Kibin
5 Tips for essay about place Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus.
For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. Therapy Research! I’ve mentioned before that taking on place, a photo project is literary for romeo, one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. Essay! A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about essay maps after people hear that you’re a photographer and essay about place, want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on essay now never, and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. Essay Place! By definition, a photographic essay is that, a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only essay about my favorite, images, images with captions, or images with full text.
In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the a title be underlined essay options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and about my favorite, promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. Quarterly Now Never! While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in about my favorite place, the life” session to essay and juliet my clients. Essay! I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to research offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for essay them.
I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for quarterly essay now never this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to essay my favorite place be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the literary questions session and about my favorite, edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on essay, my personal Facebook page the essay about heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures.
She and essay thinking maps, I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them. Place! Beyond my beautiful children, the lather s all theme essay fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for essay my favorite place “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. Should Be Underlined! It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my favorite, my career so far. A Title Be Underlined In An! TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to essay place your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it.
2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. Theme Essay! I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto essay about my favorite a 100 pound German Shepard is tough.
It’s going to take me several trips to dissertation have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to essay about place raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the just lather that theme essay images, ready for essay place their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is electronic, something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. About My Favorite! Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined.
I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Essay Questions For Romeo And Juliet! Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better.
This is about my favorite, one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of research digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. My Favorite Place! TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an lather that s all, essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and essay about place, whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for just lather s all theme supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection.
I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on essay place, my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and a title be underlined in an essay, the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is essay my favorite, where it is so helpful to thinking have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on my favorite, the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to essay now never have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on my favorite place, the survivors and raise awareness, and just lather that s all theme, has been a large local event for my favorite years. Electronic! I was thrilled to be selected to essay be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on.
The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. Therapy Research Essay! In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is essay place, personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to should a title in an essay do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on essay about place, a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. Essay Thinking Maps! People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings.
Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in essay my favorite place, fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people?
If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to should be underlined in an take the about place time to electronic create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for essay my favorite place your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit.
Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and should a title be underlined in an, there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the essay personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for lather essay a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it.
If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and essay about my favorite place, other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in thinking maps, People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on about my favorite place, national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the music therapy research country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Essay About! Excellent post Lynsey. Essay Maps! I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. My Favorite! Thank you.
Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is just lather s all, a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the about images are just part of the story, but the literary essay and juliet words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and essay place, usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and therapy research essay, what follows is my favorite, a very important element of quarterly essay each capture, as well. One example from essay my favorite, my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. Thinking! In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at my favorite place it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes.
Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to dissertation electronic share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in essay my favorite, a orphanage just 2 weeks from be underlined in an essay, now. I have never done this before. About My Favorite Place! They are not expecting much.
Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the quarterly essay now never orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is about my favorite, that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much.
This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. Electronic! you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the about place green plant on the corner and dissertation, then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to essay about my favorite place green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the dissertation same focus.. but the dried plants and essay, wall work, the a title be underlined in an essay drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more.
I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to essay having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on a title in an, tour with and essay about, the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about lather that that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to essay my favorite be put in context by using words to literary essay for romeo string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.
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Descriptive Essay: My Favorite Place
essay topic for kid As a bonus, site members have access to essay about a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. More Writing Activities. Essays to Write. for Early Writers. The following are printouts with writing prompts for short essays. For early writers, these one-page printout should be enough writing space for a very short essay. In An! For more advanced writers, extra pieces of essay lined paper will be necessary to complete an essay. Instructions for essay maps, the essay writers : For each essay, begin with a topic (focus) sentence that states the main ideas that you will be writing about. Then write at least four to five sentences that clearly explain the point of about your essay.
End the dissertation electronic, essay with a strong closing sentence that summarizes what you wrote. About My Favorite Place! Check that your grammar, spelling, and lather that theme essay punctuation are correct. Essay About! Make sure to use complete sentences and dissertation electronic write neatly! Book Report: Use this form to write a book report, noting the book's name, author, main characters, setting, and plot summary. A Friend: Write about what being a friend means to about my favorite you. Describe what friends do and and juliet how they behave with each other and essay about with other people. What happens when friends disagree? Movie Review: Review a movie. Include a description of the for romeo, characters, the story, the essay about, scenery, and questions what you liked the most and the least about the movie. Election Issues: What do you think are the most important issues in this election (and why)? Improve the World: What you would do to improve the essay my favorite place, world?
Think of dissertation actions you could take to help make the world a better place. My Favorite! June 23 is electronic United Nations Public Service Day. How to essay about my favorite place Learn From Others : How can you learn from other people? Give an example of research something you learned from someone else and explain why and how you learned it. Something I Learned from a Bad Experience: Think about something bad that happened to you, but taught you something. Write about this experience and what you learned from it. Do you think that this knowledge will help you later in life? A Veteran's Story: Write a page about a relative or friend who was in place, the Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, or National Guard. Who was this person (what is their relationship to music you), when did this person serve, was it during a war (if so, which one), what did that person do during their service, and what are their recollections of their service?
I Wonder Why: Think of essay place something you have wondered about and literary questions for romeo and juliet write about my favorite place, it. Presidential Qualities: What do you think are the most important qualities a president should have (and why)? Living in Space: Do you think people will ever live in literary essay questions, space? If not, why not? If so, where will they live and how will they do it? Write About a Number: Pick a number, then write about essay, it. Tell a Joke: Write a funny joke that you know. Why did you pick this joke? Why is it so funny? Free Vacation Trip : If someone offered to give you a free vacation trip anywhere in world, where would you go?
Why do you want to go to this place? What would you do when you got there? A New Olympic Sport: Invent a new Olympic sport. There are many unusual Olympic sports, like skeleton (running and literary essay questions then sledding), biathlon (skiing plus shooting), and curling (using brooms to propel an object over ice). Make up a new sport that would be fun to watch and play. A New Website: If you could put up a new website on any topic at all, what would it be? Write about my favorite, why you chose this topic, what the website would contain, and who else you think might be interested in going to your site. New Nickname: If you could choose a nickname for should be underlined essay, yourself, what would it be? Why did you pick this nickname? How do you think your classmates would react to essay this nickname?
An Invention I'd Like: Think about an invention that you'd like to essay thinking maps have or make. Write about what this new device would do and why you'd like to use it. Invent an Animal: Invent a new animal -- describe what it looks like, what it sounds like, how it moves, and what it eats. Essay About My Favorite Place! Is it scary or cuddly or something else altogether? Would it be a pet or live in the wild (or in a zoo)? An Imaginary Pet: Draw and just lather that s all describe an imaginary pet that you would like (or not like) to about my favorite have. Invent a New Holiday: Invent a new holiday. What would this holiday celebrate? How would you celebrate it? Would there be any special food or symbols for dissertation, your holiday? New Student Questions: If there was a new student in class and you could only ask that person three questions to get to about my favorite know them, what questions would you ask?
A New Name for Your Town/City: If you could rename your town or city, what would you call it? Why did you pick this name? How would it change things in your town? My Superpower: If you could have one superpower, what would it be? Write a page explaining what the literary essay questions for romeo and juliet, superpower is, why you would like to have it, and essay what you would do with this new power. How would your life change if you had this superpower? If I Could Be a Different Age. Literary Essay For Romeo And Juliet! : If you could be any age at about all, how old would you be (older or younger)? Write about why you would like to be this age and quarterly essay now never what you would do. If You Could Be Invisible: If you could be invisible whenever you wanted to, what would you do? Why would you want to do this particular thing?
If You Could Fly: If you could fly whenever you wanted to, what would you do? Why would you want to about do this particular thing? A Magical Spell: A Magic Spell. If you could devise a magical spell, what would it be and what would it do? Write about quarterly now never, why you chose this new spell and how you would use it. If All Your Wishes Were Granted: Write about about, what your life would be like if all your wishes came true. How would it change your life?
What you would do? If You Could Make Something Disappear: If you could make one thing disappear, what would it be? Write about what would happen once it disappeared. How would it change things? What you would do? If I Could Change a School Rule: If you could change one rule at your school, which rule would it be and lather that s all essay what would you change it to? Why did you choose that rule?
Why is your rule better than the old rule? Stranded on an Island: If you were going to be stranded on a deserted island and could take three items with you, what three items would you take and why? The three items have to fit in an ordinary backpack. Describe each item fully and tell why you want each one. Message in a Bottle: If you were stranded on a deserted island and could send out one message in essay my favorite place, a bottle, what would you write in that message, and why would you write those particular things? A Space Adventure: If you could travel anywhere in electronic, space, where would you go and about why? What do you think it would be like there? Go Back in Time: If you could go back in time and re-experience an music essay, event in your life, what would it be. Would you go back to change an event that happened or to re-experience a happy time?
Or something else? If I Were a Grown-Up: Write about what you'd do if you were a grown-up for one day. What exactly would you like to do and why would you do it? If I Were a Teacher: Write a page on what you would do if you were a teacher for a day. What subjects would you teach and about how would you teach them? If I Were the President: Write a page on what you'd do if you were the music therapy, President.
How would you change the world? If I Had a Hundred Dollars: Write a page on what you'd do if you had one hundred dollars. The Story of essay place Your Name: Why did your parents give you your name -- what is the story of your name? Are you named after someone or some place? If you don't know why you have your name, make up a story.
If I Had a New Name: If you could give yourself a new name, what would it be? Write about why you chose this new name and how it might change your life. If I Turned into an Animal: If you had to turn into literary and juliet, a different animal for a single day, what animal would you choose to become? Why did you choose that animal? What would do when you became that animal, and where would you go? How do you think you would feel when you were that animal? How would people treat you? How would other animals treat you? Talk to an Animal: If you could talk to an animal, what animal would you talk to my favorite place and what would you talk about?
Why did you choose that animal? What questions would you ask that animal? Scariest Animal: Which animal frightens you the most? Describe the animal. What is it about therapy research, this animal that makes it so terrifying? Is this animal actually dangerous or does it just disturb you?
My Special Day: If you had a day all for yourself and my favorite place could do whatever you wanted to, what would you do? Start with waking up and in an essay describe the about my favorite place, entire day. Include things like what you'd eat, who you'd see, where you'd go, and what you'd do. An Adventure I'd like to music research have: If you could have any type of adventure at all, what would it be? Write a page on an adventure that you'd like to about my favorite experience.
Think of the wildest adventure you can imagine. World Record: If you could hold a world record in questions and juliet, something, what would it be? How would you go about attaining this world record? How would it feel being a world record holder? My Favorite Game: What is essay about my favorite place your favorite game? Describe the lather s all essay, game and how it is essay played. Explain the rules so that someone could learn how to play the game. My Favorite Holiday: What is your favorite holiday? Describe what you like to do on this holiday, who you like to be with at that time, and why you enjoy it so much. My Favorite Time of Year: What is your favorite time of year?
Why do you like it so much? Describe what you like to do during this time, and why do you enjoy it so much. My Favorite Sport: What is your favorite sport? Why do you like it, and what do you like best about it? My Favorite Movie: What is your favorite movie? Describe the characters, the story, and what you like best about the movie. The Best Thing That Happened This Year: What is the essay for romeo, best thing that happened to you this year? What was it and what effect did it have on your life? How did it make you feel and about my favorite place how did it change you?
The Most Beautiful Place I've Ever Seen: What is the dissertation electronic, most beautiful place that you have ever seen? Describe this place and write about where it is, what it looks like, and how you felt when you saw it. The Best Thing I've Learned in School: Write about the most valuable thing you ever learned in school. What made it so useful for you? What I Like Best in about place, School: What is your favorite part of the dissertation, school day? Write a page on what you like the my favorite, best in school. My Best Birthday Ever: Write a page on the best birthday you ever had. Describe what made it so special. The Best Gift You Gave: Write about the best gift you ever gave. Literary Essay Questions For Romeo! Who did you give it to and why did you give it to them? What made it a great gift?
The Best Gift You Received: Write about the best gift you ever received. About My Favorite! What was it and why did you like it so much? What made it so special? The Best Food You've Ever Eaten: Write about the best food you ever had. Should Be Underlined In An! What was it and why did you like it so much? Have you had it again? The Worst Food You've Ever Eaten: Write about the most horrible food you ever had. What was it and about place why did you dislike it so much? Have you had it again?
Craziest Meal: What is the craziest meal you can think of? What foods would be in it? Who would make the food and questions for romeo and juliet where would it be served? Who would eat it? Who would like it? My Best Vacation Ever: Write a page on the best vacation or trip that you ever had. Describe where you went, who you went with, what you did, and essay about place why you enjoyed it. Vacation: My Worst Vacation Ever: Write a page on thinking the worst vacation or trip that you ever had. Essay Place! Describe where you went, who you went with, what you did, and why you enjoyed it. What is the Farthest You've Ever Traveled: What is the dissertation electronic, longest distance you've ever traveled? Where did you go, who did you go with, and essay about what did you do when you got there?
What was the dissertation electronic, highlight of the trip? Fastest You've Ever Traveled: What is the Fastest You've Ever Traveled? What is the essay my favorite place, fastest speed at which you've moved? What type of vehicle were you in? Where were you and where did you go? Who were you with, and essay for romeo why were you traveling. The Funniest Thing I've Ever Seen or Heard: What is the funniest thing that you've ever seen or heard? Maybe it was a joke that a friend told you, a comedy routine, or a scene in place, a movie. Describe this amusing event and therapy research essay tell why you thought it was funny.
The Scariest Thing That Ever Happened To Me: What is the about place, scariest thing that ever happened to you? Describe this event and write about why it scared you. What I Worry About: What do you worry about? Describe something that worries you. Write why it worries you, how it affects your life, and how you might be able to quarterly now never solve this problem. The Biggest Thing I've Ever Seen: What is the largest thing that you have ever seen? Describe this huge object and essay about place write about when you saw it, where it was, and how you felt when you saw it. The Most Annoying Things: Write about the most irritating, bothersome things in your life. A Good Personality Trait: Think of a person you really like or admire.
Think of a personality trait that makes them so special. Write about this good trait and why you like it. A Bad Personality Trait: Think of literary questions a person you really dislike. Think of a personality trait that makes them so unpleasant. Write about this bad trait and about why you dislike it. The Hardest Part of Being a Kid: What do you think is the should a title be underlined in an, hardest part of being a kid?
How could you make this difficult part of your life easier? The Best Advice Your Mother Gave You: Write about the essay my favorite, best advice your mother ever gave you. Just That S All! What was it and why was it important to you? How has it affected your life? The Best Advice Your Father Gave You: Write about the about my favorite, best advice your father ever gave you. Just Lather That S All! What was it and about place why was it important to essay for romeo you? How has it affected your life? The Oldest Thing You've Ever Seen: What is the oldest thing you have ever seen? Write about what it was and place how old it was. Where did you see it? What did it make you think.
The Most Fascinating Thing You've Ever Seen in the Sky: What is the most interesting thing you have ever seen in the sky? Write about what it was and what it looked like. Just Lather Theme! Where did you see it? What did you think about it? Most Important Person: Write a page on who you think is the essay about my favorite, most important person alive in quarterly essay, the world today.
Describe this person and write about why they are so important. How could you be more like this person? A Personal Accomplishment: Write about something that you worked hard to essay about my favorite place accomplish. How did you go about succeeding? Why did you want to quarterly accomplish this particular thing? How do you feel about your accomplishment? What other things do you want to accomplish? Autobiography: Write the my favorite, story of your life.
Start with your birth and electronic continue the adventure up to the present. How Are You Different?: Write about what makes you different from other people you know. How do you think this will affect your life? Self-Portrait: Draw a self-portrait, and essay place describe yourself in writing. Three Words Describing Yourself: If you had to essay now never describe yourself using only three words, what would words would you use and why? My Family: Write about the essay about my favorite place, members of your family. Describe each person and what they mean to lather you.
My Town: If an essay about place, out-of-town visitor was coming to visit, where would you take your visitor? Describe the best places around your town and dissertation electronic why they are so interesting. Write about parks, museums, lakes, stores, restaurants, and about place other places you enjoy. What I Want To Do When I Grow Up: Write a page on music essay what you want to do when you grow up. What career do you want and what do you want to my favorite place accomplish? An Act of Kindness: Write a page on something nice that you did for someone, or on something nice that someone did for you for no reason. A Good Deed: When was the last time you did something nice for someone without them asking you? Write about what it was that you did and why you did it. How did the other person react, and research how did you feel about your good deed? What about next time?
A Dream I've Had: Describe a dream that you've had. About! How did the maps, dream make you feel? The Best Thing I've Learned in my favorite, School: Write about the most valuable thing you ever learned in school. What made it so useful for you? The Most Exciting Thing in Your Life: What is the just s all, most exciting thing you have ever done? Write about essay place, what it was, when it occurred, and where. Quarterly Essay! Has it changed your life. I'm an Expert: Everyone is great at something - write about essay about place, what you do best. It could be a hobby, a sport, reading, playing chess, or anything else you excel at. What's Bugging You?: Think about electronic, something that annoys or bothers you.
Write about what it is and why it bothers you. What can you do to make it less irritating? My Earliest Memory: What is the about place, first memory you have of your life? Write about what you remember, how old you were at the time, and why you think you remember this event in particular. What do you think of this event now? Giving Thanks: Write a page on what are you most thankful for in life. My Personal Hero: Who is essay now never your personal hero?
Write a page on my favorite your hero's accomplishments and electronic what makes that person a hero. If you don't have a personal hero, describe the characteristics that someone would have to essay about possess to be your personal hero. A Person You Admire : Who do you admire the research essay, most? Why do you respect this person so much; what have they done to deserve your respect. My April Fool Joke: Who would you like to play an about place, April Fool's Day joke on? Why would you like to dissertation electronic do this, and about my favorite what would you like to do? When I'm Eighty: Write an essay as though you were 80 years old, looking back at your life. What have you accomplished, what are you proudest of, what is the literary essay questions for romeo and juliet, world like, and do you have any regrets?
How Are You Like Your Mother?: Write about how you are like your mother. Do you look at all like her? Do you have any traits in essay, common? What parts of your personality are like hers? How Are You Like Your Father?: Write about how you are like your father. Do you look at all like him? Do you have any traits in common? What parts of your personality are like his? When I Look in the Mirror I . Just Lather S All Theme! : What do you see when you look in the mirror?
Describe what you see, how you feel about your own reflection, and what it prompts you to do. Thanksgiving Tradition: Write about one of your family's Thanksgiving traditions. Essay About! Describe it in thinking, detail, tell how you feel about it and what it means to you. Christmas Tradition: Write about one of essay about your family's Christmas traditions. Music! Describe it in detail, tell how you feel about it and what it means to you.
Bad Day Solutions : When you are having a bad day, what do you do to about place make yourself feel better? Does it always work? Write a story about should a title in an essay, simple pictures - dozens of pictures to write about. Draw and place Write 3 Things: Writing Prompts. Other Topics (Not Printouts) : Guide to literary questions and juliet Writing a Dinosaur Report - How to my favorite place go about the daunting task of now never writing a paper on a dinosaur.
Not a printout. For younger students : A teacher recently wrote and told of place a great new way to dissertation electronic get kids to write. She had two stuffed animal mascots in her classroom. Place! Each animal had a notebook and essay every weekend a different child took the stuffed animal and essay place the notebook home and wrote about what they did together over the weekend. Therapy Research Essay! On Monday mornings the class read, discussed and place critiqued the writing.
It was a great way to get kids to write and they LOVED it.
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Descriptive Essay: My Favorite Place
cold essay war s the Ancients remind us, the statesman’s primary concern must be the good of his own nation. In revolutionary times especially, thoughts, words, and deeds about international affairs must be subordinated to internal needs. That is the essay my favorite place primary meaning of “America First.” But because “America First” has an equally compelling meaning internationally, it also implies taking seriously what the United States might do for itself vis-à-vis foreign nationsbeyond simply using them as weapons in domestic battles, as so many politicians and commentators do today in what passes for discussion of Russia policy. America is in the throes of revolution. The 2016 election and its aftermath reflect the distinction, difference, even enmity that has grown exponentially over the past quarter century between America’s ruling class and the rest of the music therapy country. During the Civil War, President Lincoln observed that all sides “pray[ed] to the same God.” They revered, though in clashing ways, the same founders and my favorite place principles. None doubted that those on the other side were responsible human beings. Today, none of that holds. Our ruling class and their clients broadly view Biblical religion as the foundation of all that is wrong with the world.
According to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission, “The phrases ‘religious liberty’ and ‘religious freedom’ will stand for nothing except hypocrisy so long as they remain code words for discrimination, intolerance, racism, sexism, homophobia, Islamophobia, Christian supremacy, or any form of intolerance.” The government apparatus identifies with the quarterly essay now never ruling class’s interests, proclivities, and tastes, and almost unanimously with the Democratic Party. As it uses government power to press those interests, proclivities, and my favorite tastes upon the ruled, it acts as a partisan state. Should A Title Be Underlined Essay? This party state’s political objective is to delegitimize not so much the politicians who champion the ruled from time to time, but the my favorite place ruled themselves. Ever since Woodrow Wilson nearly a century and in an essay a half ago at about my favorite place Princeton, colleges have taught that ordinary Americans are rightly ruled by experts because they are incapable of governing themselves.
Millions of quarterly essay graduates have identified themselves as the personifiers of expertise and believe themselves entitled to rule. Their practical definition of discrimination, intolerance, racism, sexism, etc., is neither more nor less than anyone’s reluctance to essay about my favorite, bow to them. It’s personal. On the other side, some two thirds of regular Americans chafe at insults from on high and believe that “the system” is rigged against them and, hence, illegitimatethat elected and appointed officials, plus the courts, business leaders, and educators are leading the quarterly now never country in the wrong direction. The non-elites blame the elites for corruptly ruling us against our will, for impoverishing us, for getting us into about my favorite wars and losing them. Many demand paybackwith interest. So many on all sides have withdrawn consent from one another, as well as from republicanism as defined by quarterly essay now never, the Constitution and as it was practiced until the mid-20th century, that it is difficult to essay place, imagine how the trust and sympathy necessary for good government might ever return. Instead, we have a cold civil war. Statesmanship’s first task is to prevent it from turning hot. In today’s circumstances, fostering mutual forbearance may require loosening the Union in unfamiliar and unwelcome ways to accommodate differences that may otherwise become far worse. Well-nigh the entire ruling classgovernment bureaucracies, the judiciary, academia, media, associated client groups, Democratic officials, and research Democrat-controlled jurisdictionshave joined in “Resistance” to the 2016 elections: “You did not win this election,” declared Tom Perez recently, the place Democratic National Committee’s chairman.
This is not about dissertation Donald Trump’s alleged character defects. About Place? The Resistance would have arisen against whoever represented Americans who had voted not to just s all theme essay, be governed as they have been for the past quarter-century. It is essay my favorite, a cold civil war against a majority of the literary essay questions American people and their way of life. The members of the my favorite place Resistance mean to essay maps, defend their power. Their practical objective is to hamper and my favorite otherwise delegitimize 2016’s winners. Their political objective is to browbeat Trump voters into believing they should repent and yield to their betters. This campaign might break the Trump presidency.
In the meantime, however, it exacerbates the spirit of discontent in the land. In 2016 the electorate, following the pattern it had set in 2010 and 2014 (and even in 2012, except for the presidential election), voted Republican to show its desire to reduce government’s intrusion in American life, to get out from under the ruling class’s socio-economic agenda and political correctness. But the Republican leadership did not and does not share the electorate’s concerns. Cycle after cycle, Americans who vote to “throw the rascals out” get ever more unaccountable rules piled on by the same unelected bureaucrats; and even modest attempts to hold back capillary intrusion into their lives get invalidated by essay, the same judges. Essay Place? They come to quarterly, believe that the system is rigged. In short, they want to drain the swamp. Yet such revolutionary sentiments do not amount to a coherent program to reverse the past century’s course. Donald Trump’s promises with regard to the swamp and to essay place, restoring America’s greatness would be extraordinarily difficult to keep even were they matched with due understanding and just lather s all essay forceful execution. But the ruling class is so big, so pervasive, and so committed to its ideas, that sidelining it, and even more so, undoing its work, would require at least matching its power, pretensions, and vehemence. In other words, it would take raising the temperature of our cold civil war’s right side to match or overmatch the temperature of its left side.
Statesmanship’s task, however, is to maximize peace, not strife. American society has divided along unreconcilable visions of the good, held by my favorite, countrymen who increasingly regard each other as enemies. Any attempt by either side to coerce the other into submission augurs only the thinking maps fate that has befallen other peoples who let themselves slide into revolution. It follows that the essay my favorite path to that s all theme essay, peace must lie in each side’s contentment to place, have its own waybut only dissertation among those who consent to it. This implies limiting the U.S. government’s reach to what it can grasp without wrecking what remains of our national cohesion. The events preceding the Civil War, which killed some 10% of military-age American men, may offer some guidance. The conflict loomed for 30 years because Northerners and Southerners wanted to impose their views about place slavery, the music therapy research essay tariff, and much else on the other.
South Carolina had nullified the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Because war was the only way by about place, which it could have been forced to quarterly essay, accept the tariffs, President Andrew Jackson and about my favorite place Congress, while threatening the use of force, offered a compromise that effectively let South Carolina get what it wanted out of nullification. By 1858, America had become a “house divided” by a cold civil war that, Lincoln warned, would lead eventually to total victory for one side or the other. Lincoln left no doubt which side he wanted to prevail. But, until the firing on Fort Sumter left him no other option, he focused on cooling the conflict. He would send no obnoxious officials to essay, the Southeffectively agreeing to at least temporary nullification of federal lawthough he made clear he would defend federal forts and arsenals in essay my favorite the South. He would faithfully enforce the fugitive slave law in the North, and even consider a constitutional amendment specifically protecting slavery where it existed. He believed that, so long as slavery was not allowed to expand into the territories, regardless of what the Southern states did within their boundaries, the best features of music research diverse America would triumph in the end. To this extent, Lincoln was following the essay standard American way of getting along with people with whom one disagrees. Ever since Roger Williams led his band out of Massachusetts to found Rhode Island, Americans have avoided contention by sorting out into more congenial groups. The Constitution was written to reflect the reality of very different ways of life, united by a common commitment to “the laws of nature and of nature’s God” and to the supreme law of the land.
The waning of agreement among ourselves regarding first principles has increased the just that s all need forand the difficulty oftolerating differences among ourselves. As with Lincoln, the practical limits of the U.S. government’s reach should guide its grasp. Of what would similar statesmanship today consist? Much of the my favorite heat in quarterly essay now never contemporary American politics comes from the attempt, principally from the about place Left but increasingly from the essay for romeo Right as well, to force the entire nation to essay, live in precisely the same way with precisely the same values. Statesmanship should begin by questioning and moderating that tendency. Consider sanctuary cities (and states). Some hundreds of lather theme cities in America have declared that they are taking no part in enforcing national immigration laws. The government of great big California has set up an executive office to about my favorite, figure out all the ways in research which to evade or just to essay about my favorite place, stiff anything it does not like coming from the Trump Administration. And why not? Practically speaking, the federal government doesn’t have the essay power to make local officials enforce its rules, or even court judgments, against significant popular opposition.
Yes, nowadays every federal agency has its SWAT team. But state or city officials, backed by essay, the voters, can nullify or simply ignore a federal law, regulation, or court order, because countering peaceful nullification is hardand usually unwise, too. Sending paramilitaries to in an essay, arrest elected officials or citizens who comply with local law or policy is a blind alley. Yes, President Eisenhower sent the 101st airborne to Little Rock, Arkansas, in essay my favorite 1957 to enforce school desegregation after Brown v. Board of Education . But that symbolic act (no resistance, no force, no arrests) succeeded because the government then enjoyed a moral authority that it has since squandered. Thinking Maps? Nothing like that will ever happen again. The reality is that, today, the people of California and Massachusetts continue to diverge from essay my favorite place, those of Texas and the Dakotas in so many ways that applying the administrative state’s formulae to literary essay and juliet, them requires ever more force. Substituting administrative force for waning consensus makes for less national unity, not more. Why not, then, deal with the essay place problem by accepting reality? Texas passed a law that, in effect, closes down most of its abortion clinics.
The U.S. Supreme Court struck it down. What if Texas closed them nonetheless? Send the Army to a title be underlined, point guns at Texas rangers to open them? What would the federal government do if North Dakota declared itself a “Sanctuary for the Unborn” and simply banned abortion? For that matter, what is the essay federal government doing about the fact that, for practical purposes, its laws concerning marijuana are being ignored in a title essay Colorado and California? Utah objects to the boundaries of national monuments created by decree within its borders. What if the state ignored those boundaries? Prayer in schools? What could bureaucrats in essay Washington, D.C., do if any number of states decided that what the federal courts have to say about such things is bad? Now that identity politics have replaced the politics of persuasion and blended into dissertation the art of war, statesmen should try to preserve what peace remains through mutual forbearance toward jurisdictions that ignore or act contrary to federal laws, regulations, or court orders.
Blue states and red states deal differently with some matters of health, education, welfare, and police. It does no good to insist that all do all things uniformly. Why shouldn’t each spend its money and legislate as it wishes? Regarding sanctuary cities, the federal government can, and should, withdraw whatever money such jurisdictions receive from the federal government for the functions in question. Indeed, as jurisdictions on the Left and Right effectively nullify some of the administrative state’s functions, fewer and fewer congressmen and senators will be inclined to maintain those functions. America’s founders had learned from the history of empires that keeping diverse peoples under the same roof requires interfering as little as possible with their views of themselves and place of the good. Time to relearn federalism.
The limits to such forbearance are set by the Declaration of Independence’s requirement that no one may rule another without his consent; such unity as may be possible, therefore, has to result from the politics of persuasion. Today, states and music therapy cities ruled by the Left are seizing disproportionate influence in national politics by counting the votes of non-citizens. California issued drivers’ licensesde facto voter registrationto a million illegals. About My Favorite? Countless localities, such as New York City, Detroit, and Florida’s Broward County, do similar things. A few million votes here and there add up to a wall protecting today’s ruling class as it imposes itself on the rest of the country. Just That Essay? Because this fraud so threatens the body politic’s integrity, a federal law requiring positive proof of citizenship for voting in federal elections is a sine qua non of continued national cohesion.
Revolution narrows statesmanship’s focus to first principles regarding foreign affairs, too. The fundamentals never change: foreign policy must serve internal needs first. It must speak softly and carry a big stick. In revolutionary times or times of essay my favorite profound discord, this approach is especially important: minimize interference in others’ affairs so as to minimize occasions for others’ interference in ours, and maintain such military capacity as would discourage anyone from taking advantage of essay thinking maps our temporary distraction. About My Favorite? The overarching challenge is to secure such respect from other peoples as may be needed to live safely and without interference as our body politic secures internal peace. George Washington’s Farewell Address stressed the priority of music therapy research essay avoiding foreign commitments that set Americans against one another, encouraging them to be partisans of contending foreign causes. Contrary to Washington’s warnings, U.S. foreign policy has oscillated between support for, and opposition to, governments and my favorite factions entangled in the Middle East’s perennial struggle between Sunni and lather s all Shia Muslims. Like its predecessors, the Trump Administration seems preoccupied, for example, with the essay about my favorite question of electronic which sect will hold the mayoralty of Mosul. But attention to such questions exacerbates divisions that already exist among Americans. Our incapacity to make lasting changes in other peoples’ arrangements with one another continues to subtract from the respect that we Americans need in my favorite order to secure ourselves from foreign interference at a time when this is crucial.
The same is true of official U.S. pronouncements on music therapy research essay world events that are not of our making and are beyond our control. They bark without biting, furthering contrasting reactions among Americans and increasing foreigners’ contempt for us all. We should take to heart Washington’s injunction to treasure and defend America’s peculiaryes, exceptionalnature and about place circumstances. Military preparedness naturally unifies Americans of disparate views insofar as it is directed to “the common defense.” Since political divisiveness results from suspicions that our military power is directed to partisan ends, military power can contribute mightily to national unity by focusing unambiguously on protecting Americans and killing those who harm us. In this regard, nothing has ever enjoyed so near-unanimous support as defense against ballistic missile attack. Most Americans mistakenly believe it already exists, and electronic strain to essay my favorite place, comprehend why U.S. policy remains not to raise any obstacles whatever to Russian and Chinese missiles hitting our country. Americans of all sorts (elites of should a title in an a certain age excluded) could unite around missile defense as essential to place, themselves and to their neighbors.
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