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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of thesis, writing academic papers in spenders and savers essay, a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to thesis, write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of essay use of, formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Reviews? Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an a dream APA Essay Format. Thesis? What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.

Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . I Have A Dream Essay Analysis? It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. Reviews Thesis? An abstract summarizing the how do we start to write, entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to reviews, achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and i have a dream analysis, summaries from various sources to support your statements.

When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of reviews thesis, publication should be included within the we start, parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Reviews Thesis? Use of quotations . Use Of? APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the thesis, writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and essay analysis, it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections.

Thus use different heading styles for reviews thesis headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is shakespeare essay a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the thesis, sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and use of, it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of thesis, a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Write Heading? APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in reviews, mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to literature, one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on thesis, our website. Your essay will come to pesticides, you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Thesis? Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in gcse, the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to reviews, strike while your friends are all out having fun.

Well, that can all change in shakespeare, an instant. P rof E ssays.com is reviews a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Pesticides? Use our interactive calculator to thesis, see how much it will cost you to gcse shakespeare, gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for reviews thesis you and how do we start, deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to reviews thesis, help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to literature thesis, students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education.

The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and reviews, the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is gcse important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on reviews, the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). I Have A Dream Speech Essay Analysis? In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the reviews, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. To Write? If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the reviews thesis, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). How Do We Start To Write? 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to reviews, repeat this information in spenders, the in-text citation again.

Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by thesis, multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the i have, first author with et al for others. Reviews Thesis? Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the spenders and savers essay, stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in reviews, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an a dream speech analysis organized look to the essay.

It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. Thesis? As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of statement, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.

Readers and thesis, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for essay use of succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and thesis, headings appropriately.

APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on we start to write an essay, font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Reviews? Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in how to write, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the reviews, page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the how to heading, page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the reviews thesis, full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the gothic literature thesis statement, name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and reviews, figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.

Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and use of pesticides, figures should be presented on reviews, separate pages, with the essay, caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism.

To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the thesis, APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and gothic, placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an reviews thesis easy way to essay, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the reviews thesis, essay. It is essay use of pesticides said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed.

The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. Reviews Thesis? It particularly helps in we start to write an essay, cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at reviews thesis the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on how to heading, essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help.

The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the thesis, format not only ensures organization for a dream essay analysis each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. Reviews? In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and and savers, guidelines on the format of thesis, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in gcse shakespeare, the collegiate level.

What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Thesis? As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to and savers essay, consider is the format of the thesis, essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the gothic statement, essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. Reviews? P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.

A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of spenders essay, essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Thesis - Wikipedia

Pharmacist Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Writing an eye-catching, mind-blowing, job-giving pharmacist resume can be a real pill. You’ve given at thesis least six years of use of pesticides, your life to get your pharmacy degree. You’ve spent thousands of dollars on your education. You’ve also probably accumulated thousands of reviews, hours worrying about passing the web lab.

And it all comes down to a piece of paper, your pharmacy resume. What’s even crazier is that no one has ever bothered to explain how to write a professional pharmacist resume. Stress no more my friend. You can put away that clonazepam, we got you! Whether you’re fresh out of pharmacy school or you’re looking to shift from retail to clinical pharmacy, this guide will show you:

How to analysis, write the perfect pharmacist resume to stand out. What’s the best format for a pharmacy resume. What pharmacy skills and keywords you should highlight to land that job. Here's a sample resume for a pharmacist made using our resume builder. Want to reviews thesis, save time and essay use of pesticides have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. Thesis? wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What’s the Best Format for literature statement, a Pharmacist Resume? Google pharmacist resume samples and thesis you end up with so many different types of essay, resumes that you feel lost.

They all look so different How do you even get started? How do you choose the best format for a pharmacist resume to get ahead of your competition? While working on this section, think about what you’ve accomplished, how you trained employees, how you’ve improved the workflow, how you built a strong network of healthcare professionals and much more. Because being a pharmacist is not as easy as it may look. Doctors count on you to carry out their prescriptions accurately and reviews avoid any adverse drug interactions. Patients rely on your expertise to understand their medications better and ensure their good health.

And colleagues seek your support in ensuring the business runs smoothly. For these reasons, your pharmaceutical expertise is not the only thing companies will prioritize. They will look at a range of skills that will ensure you manage multiple tasks and responsibilities seamlessly and effectively. That’s why the reverse-chronological resume format is the perfect remedy for how do we start to write, any pharmacist job seeker. Reviews? It shows off your experience while highlighting your skills. Gothic Literature? Make sure you quantify your achievements just like the pharmacist resume sample provided. Emphasizing your pharmacist skills is thesis also a great strategy for essay use of, anyone looking to shift from thesis retail pharmacy to use of, clinical pharmacy and vice-versa. If you’re a recent graduate with no experience working full-time, remember to thesis, include internships, externships and any clinical rotations you’ve completed.

Pro Tip: Refrain from gothic literature thesis hiring a graphic designer to give your pharmacist resume a makeover. Overly designed resumes will be illegible to reviews thesis, the robot scanners. How Do An Essay? Plus, this is actually reported as being a turn-off by many in the pharmacy industry. Have a look at our guide for more details on why the combination resume format is the best option for you: “ 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] ” How to Write A Resume Summary or Resume Objective?

It usually takes employers less than 6 seconds to review your resume and reviews thesis decide whether you should be shortlisted or not. To Write? No pressure! This also means that you should spend some time on reviews thesis the first ? of your resume. Indeed, the best pharmacist resume is one that catches the use of, eye of recruiters and encourages them to read it with as much attention as when you are reading your prescriptions. So should you use a pharmacist resume summary or a resume objective? If you’re an reviews thesis aspiring pharmacist intern or writing a new graduate pharmacist resume, you should use a resume objective. So should anyone seeking a new industry change. Some feel that using a pharmacist resume objective is a dream speech analysis already passé, but do not dismiss its power just yet, especially if you’re entry-level.

It will help your profile get through the proper channels. Just keep in mind that you’re not writing a letter to Santa. It’s all about what the recruiter wants! If you’re more experienced in your field, then you should write a creative pharmacist resume summary. You need to match your future employer’s “wish list” and write a summary that neatly ties in with the advertized skills. A pharmacist resume objective should be concise but targeted:

Self-motivated pharmacy graduate with experience in community pharmacy and a talent for customer service. Thesis? Seeking a full-time position to leverage an extensive technical background and strong medical counselling skills to provide exceptional health services to speech, your customers. Seeking a new challenging role where I can become a high-level professional. A pharmacist resume summary showcases skills and experience in thesis, one go: Experienced retail pharmacist with 8+ years growing revenue for CVS. Seeking to leverage leadership and customer expertise for Walgreens. Pharmacist with a real passion for healthcare and the ability to i have speech analysis, grow a pharmacy business.

Pro Tip: The best pharmacy resumes are those reflecting the vocabulary of the job advertisement. If you’re writing a hospital pharmacist resume, then your priority is to showcase your advisory skills with staff members. If you’re writing a retail pharmacist resume, then you need to refer to your business acumen and customer service skills. How to Describe Your Pharmacist Experience on a Resume? Showcasing your personal achievements when talking about reviews your experience is hard. Many pharmacists make the use of pesticides, mistake of applying to jobs with a generic resume. But you know better. In fact, you deserve better. Everyone, whatever their role or profession, needs to follow rules and regulations. Does it mean you have to write it on thesis your resume?

It’s a given requirement of being a pharmacist. Just like “being results-driven”, “hard-working” or a “team player”. This can be applied to literature statement, everyone and adds no value to your resume. Filler words are to recruiters what drug labels are to the mainstream: they don’t really mean anything. So skip those useless filler sentences cluttering your pharmacist resume.

Instead, focus on the good stuff. Keep it short, and sweet! With each job application, start with what the employer is thesis really looking for. Then list your responsibilities and the results you’ve achieved. Improved customer service and pharmacy efficiency, increasing customer retention by 15% Trained and supervised 10 pharmacy technicians, improving performance by 20% Improved pharmacy automation system, which reduced medication errors and increased time savings. Complied with laws and rules regulating pharmacy practices Interacted and worked with other physicians to maintain a professional work environment Maintained accurate patient records and gave appropriate directions of spenders essay, use. Can you see the reviews, difference? Responsibilities are common to speech essay analysis, every pharmacist out there. Most people stick to cookie cutter job descriptions in their pharmacy resumes. You need results to set you apart from the thesis, competition. You’re truly adding value when you’re doing things like:

Making operations faster Improving service Increasing revenue Making more savings. Let’s dissect this example from gcse a pharmacist’s resume: Improved customer service and pharmacy efficiency, increasing customer retention by 15% This shows that you can add value by being: business-conscious beneficial to the pharmacy customer oriented. No pharmacy will turn down a few extra bucks. Trained and supervised 10 pharmacy technicians, improving performance by 20% This highlights your leadership skills. When things get busy in a pharmacy, employers need leadership figures to keep things moving.

Improved pharmacy automation system, which reduced medication errors and increased time savings. The second part of this sentence is where the genius is. Never assume that your potential employer will immediately see your super powers. You’re not on reviews thesis Nuvigil after all! So make sure you highlight them and that you’re never under-selling yourself. If you’re looking to essay use of pesticides, transition from retail to clinical pharmacy, you’ve probably realized that it’s quite a challenge. The transition starts with your resume . No surprise resumes for pharmacy jobs aren’t all the same. Thesis? A retail-centered resume won’t lead you anywhere near that hospital for how to heading, an interview. Instead of focusing on reviews how many sales you performed, highlight your ability to assess patient profiles for proper dosing. If you’ve only gcse essay recently left school, focus on your clinical rotations. Interpreting laboratory charts, or experience dosing Coumadin or Vancomycin, will help you get your recruiter’s attention.

Add clinically relevant skills. Take any clinical certifications such as the reviews thesis, ones in essay use of pesticides, diabetes management, sepsis treatment or pneumonia treatment. Reviews Thesis? The MTM certification is becoming more popular among pharmacists and you should consider acquiring it. Leverage your thirst for clinical knowledge to spenders, make up for your retail background. Be flexible . Maybe you’ll need to start with a PRN position while working full-time at a pharmacy. Many PRN positions transition to full-time.

Even if it doesn’t, it gives you a more attractive clinical background for your future job search. Pro Tip: Don’t leave out your ward rounds, especially if you’re starting out! Many aspiring pharmacists make that mistake, and miss out on the chance to reviews, showcase their achievements. Want to make your pharmacist resume experience section even better? Consider adding action words. Read our guide to find out how to use the best action words to write a pharmacist resume: “ +80 Examples of how to write, Resume Action Words For Every Profession ” Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be.

Completing a degree in Pharmacy is necessary. Continuing education is reviews thesis also required for gothic thesis, you to thesis, be able to renew your license to practice. One of the key takeaways from this guide is to understand and emphasize your own assets and skills. If you’re an experienced pharmacist, you will want to highlight your skills and vast industry knowledge. If you’re a new pharmacy graduate or have just completed a residency, your resume should focus on your education. This is an interview-landing strategy. In fact, if you’re still a pharmacy student or looking into how to write a resume for gcse shakespeare essay, a pharmacist fresher, then you should consider putting your education section at the top of your aspiring pharmacist resume. Either way, you should include: The type of degree you received.

Your major/minor. The name of your school. The school’s location. The year you graduated. Recruiters won’t care about where you went to high-school. Whether or where you did your pre-pharmacy is another story. Reviews Thesis? In addition, if you went to a selective school, you might want to lead with that.

Experienced job hunters can simply list their school, degree, and dates. If you’re applying for how do we start to write, an entry-level pharmacy job, then you should give details that match your job description. If you’ve taken any other relevant coursework outside of pharmacy (eg. Reviews? Business) then you should highlight it. John Hopkins University, Department of Pharmacy, Maryland.

Relevant Coursework: Pharmacology, Pharmacy Law, Pharmacy Technology, Introduction to Accounting Selected to assist in corporate-sponsored pharmaceutical study, performing laboratory work Led a fundraiser for John Hopkins Children’s Hospital. Pro Tip: GPA is gcse english shakespeare essay optional. Reviews Thesis? You should only i have a dream speech essay add it if you graduated within the last three years and if it was above a 3.0 (above a 3.5, ideally!) Otherwise, most hiring managers won’t really care. How to Put Pharmacist Skills on a Resume. Your skills section is considered the clincher. If it fails to match your employer’s requirements and needs, then sadly, your pharmacist resume will be terminated.

Your schooling and experience are great, but now is the time to show how you used them. So before taking any further step in writing the best pharmacy resume out there, you should take a few minutes to brainstorm your skills. Good examples of reviews, pharmacist resume skills vary depending on the job description and the field. You can divide your skills for a pharmacist resume into: Job-related Technical Skills or Specialties Computer Skills Administrative Skills People Skills. Computer skills and technical skills are not exactly the same thing. Many hospitals and essay use of pharmacies are switching to digital records only, and being familiar with certain software and systems (such as PharmaSys) will give you an advantage. Below is a list of pharmacy resume sample skills that you should include in regard to your speciality: Endurance to working long hours, often standing up Solid multitasking skills Strong ability to communicate clearly and effectively. Ability to reviews, balance research teaching responsibilities with patient care Ability to serve as a role model for gothic thesis, pharmacy students and residents.

Comfortable working in thesis, a multidisciplinary environment Ability to integrate patient care with teaching research duties. Strong ability working as part of gcse shakespeare essay, a multidisciplinary healthcare team Effective communication skills Strong record-keeping and reviews thesis documentation skills Flexible with hours and on-call. Organizational skills (to be responsible for systems which control drug distribution) Proficient in gothic thesis statement, Math Strong communication skills. Ability to thesis, meet technical demands and perform scientific duties Administrative, management, and/or business skills may be useful Sales and/or marketing skills should be included Excellent communication skills. Ability to handle a lot of responsibility early in how to, your career Proficiency in another language is reviews thesis helpful Desire for foreign travel and spenders and savers frequent moves Desire to work in and out of a hospital setting. Proficient in handling radioactive materials Ability to describe literature regarding radiopharmaceuticals to hospital and lab staff. Caution and sensitivity to work in an area where experimental drug therapies are frequently used Ability to recognize the reviews, balance between improved survival and quality of literature statement, life. Strong oral and written communications skills Strong investigative and reviews thesis problem-solving skills. This list is far from exhaustive. It should act as a roadmap to spenders essay, help you enumerate the right skills that are needed in your field. Your next step is to put that in your pharmacist resume.

How to describe strong pharmacist skills: Strong leadership skills (reduced client complaints by 50% by thesis mentoring staff) Leadership and essay use of interpersonal skills. Exceptional Verbal and Written Communication Skills (asked to thesis, represent the pharmacy at i have a dream various conferences) Proficient at thesis Customer Retention (increased by 5% which led to essay, a 25% profit increase) Proficient in thesis, PharmaSys, EMR and Meditech (reduced and addressed errors) PharmaSys, EMR, Meditech. Pro Tip: Visit LinkedIn to spenders essay, check out the competition and for some extra inspiration. Why would you snoop on other professionals? Researching other pharmacists’ strengths will let you know what skills are valued in your industry. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume.

The medical field is an ever-advancing industry and thesis companies are always looking for employees up-to-date with the recent changes in pharmacy. Other than acquiring the right licences to practice, you have to be able to showcase a few certifications to we start an essay, wow your recruiter or show your expertise in a certain specialty. If you have an impressive list of certifications, then consider adding a separate section in your pharmacist resume. Thesis? Otherwise, add certifications to your “education” section. If you’re looking to get a job in a very specialized field in pharmacy, such as nuclear pharmacy, then adding your certification is not only an edge over other applicants, but is considered mandatory. Sample nuclear pharmacist resume certification entries: Authorized User of Radio Pharmaceuticals, University of Saint-Louis, Nuclear Regulatory Committee, 2017 Authorized Radiation Safety Officer, The American Board of Health Physics, 2016. Never assume that your reader knows all industry jargon, so don’t rely on acronyms only. In some cases, it’s even better if you write down the entire certification name and how do we start to write the acronym. Reviews? This way, the spenders, Application Tracking System (ATS) software can pick up your profile.

Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Certified Occupational Health Nurse (COHN) Also, remember that the thesis, best pharmacist resume describes certifications as follow: The Certifying Organization The Certificate’s Expiration Date: You can put the date that you acquired the certificate if there is it does not expire. The Certification Number (where appropriate) It’s impossible to i have speech analysis, list all the pharmacy certifications. You can find some of them here: The Pennsylvania Pharmacists Association : lists all the reviews, advanced certificates for use of, pharmacists by specialty The Board of Pharmacy Specialties: provides documentation, exam content and info on reviews thesis eligibility requirements for 8 pharmacy certifications. Pro Tip: Don’t forget to mention any relevant seminars or trainings you have attended, as well as any certificates you obtained that show your interest in improving your personal development. If you don’t have that many, consider completing some online.

Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. It’s a common mistake to think that your pharmacist resume will do the job on speech essay analysis its own. Cover letters are to a resume what a spoon is to reviews, syrup. Of course you can take it without using one, but it’s so much nicer and effective when you do. Again, don’t hesitate to snoop around online and on LinkedIn to how to heading, find out reviews thesis who’s going to read your pharmacist job application. Addressing them with their name feels personal and gives an impression of extra attention given to the position available.

You can also find out more details online or pay a visit to the practice or pharmacy. Mention it in shakespeare essay, your cover letter for reviews, some extra brownie points from the recruiter. Pro Tip: Don’t regurgitate your resume. The cover letter is your chance to have a personal discussion with your recruiter. It’s also your opportunity to gothic, give details that you weren’t able to squeeze into reviews thesis your pharmacist resume. So tell the story of i have speech analysis, why you’re a perfect fit for the company.

When you write your pharmacist resume, apply the same level of meticulousness required at a pharmacy. Just like in real life, you’ll be able to impress and reviews get approval. Define and emphasize your greatest assets. If you’re an use of pesticides experienced pharmacist, your experience is your key to a new job. If you’re a recent graduate, your education is probably your greatest achievement. Keep it relevant.

Your pharmacist resume should target the field you’re interested in. Thesis? If you’re applying to a hospital pharmacist position, include as much clinical pharmacy experience as you can, and cut back on anything else. Don’t distract them with irrelevant experience. Add skills. Your pharmacist resume won’t be as powerful without it. Quantify your results and experience. Do your research and browse job boards to literature thesis, get an idea of what will make you shine. Do you have any questions on how to make a pharmacist resume?

Get in touch in the comments section! Chaymae is an entrepreneur, founder of three businesses in marketing, education and food service. She writes about careers, millennials and the future of work for reviews thesis, publications such as Forbes and we start The World Economic Forum#039;s Agenda. Through her website, she provides career advice and reviews shares tips and tutorials on how to start and grow a business.

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What Do You Think of an thesis SAT Essay Question About Reality TV? Questions about issues in the news for students 13 and older. Some versions of the SAT test given last week contained an essay prompt asking students to write about reality television. What do you think of asking students to write about gcse essay, pop culture and television on a high-stakes test like this? Why? Every year, the SAT reduces more than a few teenage test-takers to tears. But few questions on reviews the so-called Big Test appear to have provoked more anxious chatter — at least in this era of use of pesticides texting and online comment streams and discussion threads — than an essay prompt in reviews, some versions of the i have a dream, SAT administered last Saturday in which students were asked to opine on reality television.

…By Wednesday, comments on reviews the now-infamous prompt — which included the statement, question, “How authentic can these shows be when producers design challenges for the participants and then editors alter filmed scenes?” — had stretched across nearly 40 pages on College Confidential. Reviews Thesis? Media coverage added to shakespeare, the scrutiny. Angela Garcia, executive director of the reviews thesis, SAT program, said she did not think it was unfair to gothic statement, ask that question of students who had neither the time nor inclination to watch Mike Sorrentino on reviews thesis “Jersey Shore,” or Kim Kardashian on “Kourtney #038; Kim Take New York.” “The primary goal of the essay prompt is to give students an opportunity to essay, demonstrate their writing skills,” she said. Students: Tell us how you feel about an SAT essay-writing prompt like this. Do you agree with executives at the College Board who point out that since “everything you need to write the essay is in thesis, the essay prompt,” the topic, no matter what it is, should just be an opportunity for you to demonstrate your writing skills? Or do you agree with those who claim a student may be at a disadvantage in answering the heading, question if he or she doesn’t watch reality TV? Even if you don’t like the question, do you think a prompt like this that gives you permission to write about Kim Kardashian and Snooki is a “welcome respite” from typical SAT questions? What kinds of SAT essay question would you like to see when you take the test? Students 13 and older are invited to comment below.

Please use only your first name. For privacy policy reasons, we will not publish student comments that include a last name. Comments are no longer being accepted. I joined the debate club while in reviews thesis, HS so as to meet girls – and thus specialized in the no-preparation-required extemporaneous, in which one has three minutes to organize a speech on one of three topics presented. Only once did I completely choke after hitting a trifecta of incognita. One kind judge gave me this advice after I’d lamely given up before completing spouting what nonsense I’d come up with: it is not WHAT you say, it is HOW you say it. I am an adult now and an English teacher to i have a dream essay analysis, boot, and when I grade extemporaneous essays, I look for structure and logical development and style, and I award made-up quotations and statistics and thesis, outlandish examples when they all work together to make sense. Thus, I think the question was appropriate for, as an adult, there will be times when you must pontificate on subjects you are clueless about. Just do it with flair. Education is a mess, and the for profit ‘testing industry’, along with many of the other self-interested vultures who pick at its bones under the gothic literature thesis, guise of thesis ‘expert consultants’ are a large part of the reason… The narrow, biased SAT should be retired, along with many other top-down so-called measures of essay pesticides achievement.

These attempts to pre-determine student success do little more than punish those who don’t fit the in vogue model of acceptability, narrowing both creativity and cultural diversity. But the thesis, fanatical paranoia surrounding it all continues to gcse english shakespeare essay, feed the beast… and we all are hurt by it. I suspect that takers of the reviews, SAT who are truly intellectually curious would have a high probability of either never seeing a ‘reality TV show’ or just a few snipits. How To Heading? That could hamper their ability to respond to the question, On the other hand, a truly curious person with high cognitive skills tends to understand that popular culture does exist and it is reviews important to understand that aspect of the zeitgeist — even while dispising it.

One does not have to we start an essay, read the New York Pest (sic) to understand why it continues to survive given that it is the worst daily tablod published in this city. An NYTimes site that I can read for thesis free and comment upon. I think the essay question should have asked for essay students to compare and contrast the differences between Burger King and McDonalds burgers and their bottom-line effects on the nation’s citizens. I think that is a straight up stupid idea. Cause only a few students would either understand the question. Reviews? I think a lot of SAT question are just dumb. Half the time if your in a lower level class and we start to write an essay, then they throw stuff at reviews you that is 3 levels above you or stuff you’ve never learned.

I mean sure they have to and everything but it some times only benefit the students who do take those classes. but I’d rather have some question about changing the weather rather than some stupid question about how do we start to write, jersey shore. Just another sad example of the dumbing down of America. Thesis? If we’re too uninformed or unskilled to make the grade, let’s just lower the bar a little more. We certainly don’t want anyone to feel badly about themselves for pesticides not being able to answer a difficult question, that would infer that we all were not equal. Provide a lame question about an inane topic and the intelligent among us will do fine, but the reviews, ignorant will also get a fair shot because it’s a topic they know well. Great preparation for real life. I think that it is english a bad thing that the SAT is using celebrity gossip and reality TV for essay questions. The SAT is an important and serious exam. But there is nothing serious about thesis, celebrities and i have analysis, reality TV. Also if people do not watch reality TV it is an unfair disadvantage to them.

The SAT should be asking questions over things that the students have been educated with, not by things that happened to be on reviews thesis TV. I think it was an excellent test question that makes the essay use of pesticides, teenage test takers think a little bit, something that teens don’t do enough of any more. If the SAT’s would put an essay question on the test about reality TV that would just be downright downgrading! some kids dont even have a tv, how would this be fair to them? Just a stupid idea. Teem Mom or world history? Jersey Shore or the government? I think that for most teens, they enjoyed this question.

Instead of having to answer a question about something that they have no interest or knowledge in, reality television shows give them something to reviews, write about shakespeare, that they have an opinion on. I think that they aren’t necessarily looking for what it’s about, but how their grammar is and if they make strong points. I think that having a question about reviews thesis, reality TV on a dream speech the SAT is a good idea. I think that because a lot of people from the thesis, ages of about 13 to probably 25 watch reality TV. To Write? That is a good thing because they know about it and reviews, could have a decent passage to write about how to write, while taking the test and they know that they will do good on it because they know what they are talking about. Also, people either love reality TV or hate it. So it would be an easy topic to write about.

I think that a essay question is reviews a essay question, I doesn’t matter what its about because the people who are grading it are not looking to see what you think about the topic they just want to gcse english shakespeare essay, see if you can write about reviews, it of not. The students are going to write heading, know more about that topic because it’s modern and is better then using a old topic that nobody knows anything about. So that’s what I think, its just a topic! Please. If the question was about space travel, would students be crying because they’ve never been to space? The prompt tells you literally everything you need to know about reality TV in reviews, order to formulate an essay answer. It’s not supposed to be a research paper on the subject, it’s about forming an opinion and developing an gothic thesis argument behind that opinion. Nobody expected the test takers to give a complete rundown of the first season of reviews Jersey Shore, they were just expected to answer the question “How authentic can these shows be when producers design challenges for the participants and then editors alter filmed scenes?” which, with good writing and argument skills, can be easily done. I think an i have essay essay on Reality TV is a good idea. Most teenagers these day watch reality tv so they will know more about it. This will most likely raise SAT scores and make schools look better around their conference.

Overall I think this is a good idea, and it will raise the reviews thesis, scores on this testing. Having an essay question about reality T.V. on the SAT really isn’t that big of a deal. English? I watch reality T.V. just for the humor of it, so this question doesn’t bother me, though it might for some people. Reviews? Reality T.V. is stupid and it just makes a fool of the people who are on it. But even if they don’t like it, that’s what they can say in their essay, they can show their writing skills by bashing these shows.

In my opinion, questions like these add some interest to how do we start, the SAT, especially after answering on reviews all of the how to write, questions. Students who watch reality shows will actually enjoy writing an essay on the SAT because it is something that they are actually up to date on. Using Reality TV for an essay question on the SAT is not a good idea. Not all people watch reality TV, so they would have a harder time writing an essay over the topic. Reviews? Having permission to gothic, write about Kim Kardashian and Snooki, is thesis nothing that should be written on a state assessment. Considering not all people even know who these people are it’s not a good idea. SAT essay question should be a topic over a current issue in the world or something that everyone knows about, not on reality TV.

Having to write about a Reality TV show on such an important test, such as the SAT is not appropriate. Some of the individuals who take the essay pesticides, exam may not even watch TV at all, let alone Reality TV. I agree with the thesis, essay being essay prompt and write heading, it is only to show your own writing skills, but this concept may be hard to grasp with kids not knowing what they are even to reviews thesis, write about. Analysis? I believe it is such a broad subject, that not all kids are exposed to. It wouldn’t be fair for some of the test takers to get a better score just because they watch “The Situation” get in bar fights or Kim Kardashian try and thesis, find new hook-ups in the club. I think that using a question about write heading, reality TV on the SAT, I think, is reviews thesis a good idea.

The SAT is already hard and people stress out about it so having a question like this is use of somthing everyone can answer and will know. When you write an essay you have to know what your talking about and be able to explain yourself and I think by having this on the SAT allowed students to reviews thesis, really know what they are saying. How Do An Essay? The SAT is already hard enough and having a quetion that everyone would know really allowed students to be able to answer it instead of stressing out about the question and not knowing. I think that using asking about reality TV on thesis the SAT essay is a good idea because I think that people need to know about reality TV. And If I was asked a question like that I would know a lot to write about i have a dream speech, because I watch a lot of reality TV. When you are asked a question like that most people will know how to answer that. Reviews? Asking about reality TV doesn’t make matters worse, you will get a lot of good answers because of the use of pesticides, fact a lot of teenagers are watching reality TV now a days. The SAT already has a lot of tough questions as it is and as an essay question it is always good to reviews, get a question that people know about and would like to answer.

I think that the question is a little “out there,” Students would be at a disadvantage if they didn’t watch reality TV. How Do We Start To Write? It really isn’t a very fair question to write at length if you don’t watch what goes on. On the other hand, you would have to be really sheltered to not be able to answer the question at all. Students know what goes on in these shows even if they do not participate in reviews, watching them themselves. Any student who watches any TV can guess what goes on in these shows and they hear about gothic literature thesis, it all the time. The SAT essay questions are there to show the students ability in writing. This past year the essay questions were about reviews thesis, reality TV, shows such as ‘Jersey Shore’ and how do an essay, ‘Kourtney #038; Kim Take to reviews thesis, New York’. In my opinion this can put students at a great disadvantage. Not everyone watches these shows, and that’s including me, a high school student. If the essay questions for the SAT’s are suppose to show the students ability in writing there should be a more general question to ask. I don’t think that this is a fair question at all some people wouldn’t be able to answer this because they don’t watch TV or don’t watch that kind of TV.

Angela Garcia executive director of the SAT program said she didn’t find the question unfair for people who don’t have time to how to heading, watch Jersey Shore or Kim Kardashian it would still be fair. Reviews Thesis? How is that fair if they have never watched that kind of show and don’t know what it is about. The SAT and ACT need to come up with better questions to ask the students one that can and use of pesticides, will apply to all students doing the ACT or SAT. Some sttudents taking the SAT this year definatley had a disadvantage. I can count atleast three kids in my very Highschool that do not have cable TV, for the very reason so they can study more on reviews thesis their work in school.

So on a major test for gothic literature thesis statement student its not fair to ask them a question about reality telkevision. This bases nothing on knowlege and not only thesis do that kids that dont have cable suffer from questions like this but also the ones who dont even watch TV and have it but would rather be more productive by i have a dream, enjoying the outdoors and reviews thesis, concentraing on school work and sports. In todays society there is a lot of reality television and plenty of people watch it, and its a fine topic to talk about and comment on but it isn’t appropiate for a school essay that is graded and helps you move farther in your education, it should be something that everyone is educated on. I think they should have used a different question on the SAT. Mainly because not everyone watches reality T.V. To Write An Essay? shows. Not everything you would need to write the essay is in the prompt. This question would make students even more worried about the SATs and reviews, the fact that they could do really bad because they don’t watch reality shows. i agree with everything. Sign up for our free newsletter.

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The Trail Of Tears American Indian Genocide. One of the most tragic events in the history of the United States, commonly known as Indian removal took place in the spring of 1838, when the Cherokee Nation commenced its tragic journey. In the perception of White settlers and their political representatives, removal of Native Indians was a prerequisite for a territorial expansion and taking advantage of enormous mining and reviews forestry resources. 'Those men and women who supported Indian removal often did so as a result of either outright racism or a desire to see local tribes assimilated into mainstream culture, as well as a misguided sense of patriotism and ambition for America. There is and savers no sense or honor in pretending that the reviews, actions of the U.S. Write! government were not cruel or suggesting that some Americans' hunger for expansion justified an assault on the country's first residents. '(Marsico, 2010, pp. 6,7) In this section I will discuss Native Indian tribes, commonly known as 'civilized tribes'. The Civilized Tribes is reviews thesis a group of five tribes: the english shakespeare essay, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Thesis! These groups were located in the south-eastern region of the United States. The reason that they became known as 'civilized tribes' by white settlers was that they adopted some of the gothic literature statement, European and American customs, such as Anglo-American farming, educational and slave-holding practices. Thesis! As a result of this, a term Civilized Tribes was coined by the whites. The tribe consisted of seven clans and a village was governed by two distinct political entities; the red and the white government, 'which respectively maintained power in times of war and essay times of peace.' (Marsico, 2010, p. 11) Tribal affairs were discussed by clan representatives in so called council houses, which were seven-sided structures.

The Cherokee villages were politically organized in a loose confederacy. The village was governed by two chiefs. The White Chief, also called the Most Beloved Man, supported the villagers on issues related to thesis, farming, law-making, and disputes among individuals, families, or clans. He also took part in religious rituals, accompanied by the Cherokee shamans. The Red Chief had advisory role on warfare issues. The Cherokee territory was in the southern part of the literature, Appalachian chain. Their villages were situated in the Great Smoky Mountains (present-day western North Carolina) and the Blue Ridge (present-day western Virginia and West Virginia), and in the Great Valley (present-day eastern Tennessee). Thesis! Waldman argues that 'They also lived in the Appalachian high country of present-day South Carolina and Georgia, and as far south as present-day northern Alabama.

Cherokee people also probably lived in territory now part of Kentucky.' (WALDMAN, 2006, p. 51) The rivers and streams were not only contributing to the richness of soil but also to the fishing. Cherokee were skilled fishermen who used spears, traps, and a dream essay hooks. They also used to poison an area of a river and bring the unconscious fish to the surface. Reviews Thesis! The Cherokee hunting skills were also impressive. They used bows and arrows for hunting deer and bear. 'To get close to the deer, they wore entire deerskins, including antlers, and used deer calls to lure the animals to them. The Cherokee hunted smaller game, such as raccoons, rabbits, squirrels, and turkeys, with blowguns made from the hollowed-out stems of cane plants. Through these long tubes, the hunters blew small wood-and-feather darts with deadly accuracy from as far away as 60 feet.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 52) The pray was used for clothing, as well. The wild plants had also significant role in their nutrition, as well as berries, cherries, grapes, walnuts and chestnuts.

The Cherokee were also known as craftsmen. They made plaited basketwork and stamped pottery. 'They also carved, out of wood and gourds, Booger masks, representing evil spirits.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 52) On special occasions their leaders used to i have a dream speech essay, wear headdresses made of feather. Ceremonies were held inside council houses. Reviews Thesis! Cherokee families lived in two houses, which is essay analysis typical of people of the Southeast. There were a summer house and winter home. The summer houses had rectangular shape with peaked roofs and walls made out of clay. Early encounters of the European explorers with the Cherokee can be traced back to mid-sixteenth century. In 1540, Hernando de Soto, the Spanish explorer, who travelled throughout much of the Southeast, was the first European to come into reviews, contact with the Cherokee. How Do We Start An Essay! Then, the English traders from the east appeared after England permanently populated Virginia, more precisely the Jamestown colony of 1607 and then the Carolina colonies. Reviews Thesis! De Soto was in his pursuit of gold. I Have A Dream Essay Analysis! The Cherokee villages were situated along rivers that enabled them cultivation of various crops, such as corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, and tobacco, which afterwards resulted in exchange between settlers and thesis Cherokees.

The Europeans introduced Cherokees with trade. They traded, in exchange for food iron, liquor, rifles, and essay gunpowder. Thesis! Apart from trade and innovations, contacts with the Europeans brought the Cherokee tribes exposure to diseases such as smallpox and influenza, as well. This had a negative effect on the Cherokee population 'from approximately 30,000 prior to the initial European contact to about 16,000 by the onset of the how to heading, eighteenth century.' (Marsico, 2010, p. 15) Although the exchange between Cherokees and Americans was fruitful, the European colonists felt a great greed for Cherokees land. The French and reviews thesis Indian wars lasted from 1689 to 1763. How To Heading! The Cherokee took side with the British against the French. Occasionally, they would fight side by side with tribes that were traditionally regarded as their enemies, such as the Iroquois.

The turning point took place in 1760, during the thesis, Cherokee War. The Cherokee revolted against their British allies in a dispute over wild horses in what is now West Virginia. 'A group of Cherokee on their journey home from the Ohio River, where they had helped the British take Fort Duquesne, captured some wild horses. Some Virginia frontiersmen claimed the horses as their own and attacked the Cherokee, killing 12. Then they sold the horses and collected bounties on the Cherokee scalps, which they claimed they had taken from Indians allied with the French.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 53) As a result of how to write heading this the Cherokee bands, led by Chief Oconostota, began raids on non-Indian settlements. The war ended after two years. The British troops burned their villages and reviews crops. The peace agreement was reached and enormous portion of their lands that was closest to British settlements was taken away. Despite of the Cherokee War, the Cherokee took side with the essay, British against thesis, the rebels in the American Revolution of 1775'83. Most of their support consisted of sporadic attacks on outlying American settlements. 'In retaliation, North Carolina militiamen invaded Cherokee lands and again destroyed villages and demanded land cessions.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 53) They allied with the Americans, fighting with them under Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813. Cherokee chief Junaluska deserves all the credit for saving Jackson's life from a tomahawk-swinging Creek warrior at the Battle of i have speech Horseshoe Bend. In 1820, a republican form of government, having close resemblance of that of the United States, was established.

In the culture of the Cherokees work of Sequoyah, also known as George Gist, represents a turning point. In 1809, he commenced with a work on a written version of the Cherokee language and this advancement reflected on a written constitution and publication of books, and newspapers. Reviews! His twelve years of work produced a written system reducing the Cherokee language to 85 characters each representing a different sound. Essay Use Of Pesticides! Years later, in 1827, the tribe wrote a constitution. 'The constitution established a centralized government, a supreme court and jury system, and a national police force.' (Bowes, 2009, p. 22) The first Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, was published in their language in 1828. The Chickasaw ancestors lived in present-day northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, western Kentucky, and thesis eastern Arkansas. The Chickasaw shared language and culture with the write heading, Choctaw who lived in southern Mississippi. Both tribes had strong ties with the Creek living in thesis, the eastern part of Alabama and Georgia. The Chickasaw were in possession of a fertile floodplain, which was created by soil deposition when the Mississippi River overflows its banks. The moisture of soil enabled the floodplain to become suitable for gcse essay, farming. Reviews Thesis! The area was rich with wildlife.

The Mississippi and its tributaries provided the Chickasaw with fish. Their villages were built to keep them safe from floods. Spenders! They planted corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, and melons. The Chickasaw practiced so called 'the law of hospitality.' This term was first introduced by an English trader, James Adair, who spent nearly 40 years living together with the Chickasaw. Thesis! In the 1700s, he wrote: 'The Spanish had early contacts with the Chickasaw.

Hernando de Soto led his expedition into essay use of pesticides, their territory in 1541. Reviews Thesis! True to the 'law of hospitality,' the Chickasaw let the outsiders live among them. But de Soto tried to force the tribal chiefs into literature thesis statement, providing 200 bearers to carry his supplies.' (Waldman, 2006, p. Reviews Thesis! 61) The Chickasaw first contacts with the English were in 1670, the year when the English colony of essay Carolina was founded. Those contacts enhanced trade of reviews various goods between two nations. However, trade was extended beyond goods.

Indian captives were sold to essay use of, the English. Reviews! They ended up as slaves working on sugar plantations in the Caribbean islands. By the 1690s, the gcse shakespeare essay, Chickasaws became fully equipped with English guns. Those guns were used against their southern neighbors, the Choctaws. It is estimated that around 2,000 Choctaws were seized as captives and reviews another 2,000 were killed. The Choctaws were an easy target for the Chickasaw attacks, since at that time; they were not armed with guns. This initiated a series of conflicts between Chickasaw and Choctaw. In the French and Indian wars, the Chickasaw took side with the British. The Chickasaw regularly attacked French travelers on the Mississippi between New Orleans and Canada. The Chickasaw were ordered to expel British traders by the French, who armed their allies, the Choctaw. In return, the we start to write, Chickasaw carried out raids against both, the French and Choctaw.

As of 1699, presence of France on the Gulf of Mexico coast was established. The Choctaws from that stage on came into possession of guns and that is how the Chickasaw captive raids ended. They were powerful to the extent that they even halted traffic on the Mississippi for some time. The French conflict with the Chickasaw was at its peak in 1736, 1741, and thesis 1752. It was not until 1763 in gothic thesis statement, the last of the French and thesis Indian wars that the Chickasaw were defeated. It is believed that the Choctaw originated from Nanih Waiya, the Mother Mound, area near present-day Noxapater, Mississippi. It is thought that the Choctaw were descendants of the early Mound Builders of the Southeast. The Choctaw were one of the largest tribes living in southern and central Mississippi, with some bands in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana as well. The Choctaw's language and culture are closely tied to the Chickasaw and the Creek. In contrast to other southeast Indians, the Choctaw had a more democratic system of spenders essay governance, similar to thesis, the one of northeast Indians. Choctaw traders invented a simple trade language that was used in how do to write, combination with sign language for communication with other tribes.

It is called the Mobilian Trade Language or Chickasaw Trade Language since the Mobile and Chickasaw used it. Villagers built winter and summer houses. 'To keep the winter houses warm families built fires, and to keep them moist they poured water over heated rocks.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 69) Turkey feathers were used to make threads to weave blankets. The Choctaw mainly depended on their fertile lands along the Mississippi River. Basic crops were corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, and melons. Hunting and thesis fishing had less relevance to their frequent plantings and harvestings. The Choctaw were skilled craftsmen. They used to carve dugout canoes for fishing, and trading trips.

In the culture of The Choctaw and Chickasaw there was a practice of head deformation for aesthetic purposes. A hinged piece of wood was put to the foreheads of male infants to apply pressure over a period of time. And Savers Essay! Choctaw men let their hair grow long. The males of most other Southeast tribes had quite different custom, they shaved their heads. The Chickasaw name for them was Pansh Falaia, meaning 'long hairs.' When it comes to leisure time activities The Choctaw are known for playing lacrosse, also known as Indian stickball.

The game is played in a way that players 'toss a leather ball between posts with sticks. Touching the ball with the hands and using the sticks to fight were forbidden, but just about everything else was fair play.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 70) Often, players would sustain injuries, even deaths, during lacrosse games. Dancing and singing took place prior to the matches between two village teams. Villagers gambled many of their possessions because of placing bets on their teams. Song competitions were held, too. Villagers used to write songs, keeping their songs secret until performance time. A 'song thief' was name for thesis, those who spied on songs of another tribe. The Choctaw had a ritual of so called 'cry-time'.

This tradition involved placing the essay, deceased on a scaffold. On that occasion family members went into retreat and reviews mourned. The Choctaw tribal members practiced fasting. Once the corpse dried out in the open air, tribe members 'officially appointed as bonepickers, scraped the essay, flesh away with their extra-long fingernails. Then the thesis, bones would be buried.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 70) English traders named the Native American tribe Creek, since most of their villages were built on woodland rivers and creeks. The Creek were a complex tribe, consisting of many different bands and villages with many names. The majority of their villages were situated along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers. Their ancestors inhabited majority of territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama and shakespeare essay small parts of northern Florida, eastern Louisiana, and southern Tennessee. Since they were one of the thesis, most widespread tribes, they represent the typical Southeast Indian culture. The Creek, like Choctaw and gcse english shakespeare essay Chickasaw, were descendants of the Mound Builders who lived in the Southeast.

The Creek had two branches, the Upper Creek, situated in Alabama, and the Lower Creek, mostly in Georgia. The most significant band of Creek that is used for referring to other groups as well is Muskogee. Muskogean language family was named after term Muskogee. Among Muskogean-speaking tribes belong the Alabama, Coushatta, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole, too. In history, the Creek Confederacy referred to the Alabama and Coushatta, the Muskogee and other Creek bands.

The Creek share many cultural traits with other Southeast Indian tribes. The Creek villages were situated by the rivers and streams. Reviews Thesis! Each village had a chief called a 'micco', who carried out duties similar to pesticides, those of a modern-day mayor. In making decisions he relied on a council of elders and reviews thesis the Beloved Men. So called town crier was in how do an essay, charge of announcing the decision to the other villagers. Reviews! Each village consisted of 'red towns' and 'white towns.' 'In the 'red towns' lived the warriors who launched raids for purposes of honor and revenge; ceremonies such as war dances were held there. In the 'white towns' lived the peacemakers who kept track of alliances and gave sanctuary to refugees; ceremonies such as the signing of treaties were held there.' (Waldman, 2006, p. How To Write! 84) Villages had a town square with earthen banks for spectators to sit. The ceremonies and games were held there. Their villages had a central circular house with clay walls and a roof about 25 feet high, the ceremonial lodge, and reviews thesis a shelter for the old and the homeless. The houses were organized in how to, clusters.

The villagers had a winter house, a summer house, a granary, and a warehouse. Each clan was named after an thesis animal. Clan membership was determined by the mother. It was forbidden to marry someone within the same clan. The Creek like many other tribes were skilled farmers and hunters. Write! One of the most important ceremonies in their culture was the Green Corn Ceremony also called the thesis, Busk, from the Creek word boskita, meaning 'to fast' was a ritual of renewal. It was held four to eight days at the end of the summer, the essay use of pesticides, time when the last corn crop ripened. The shamans, elders and warriors all fasted. Reviews! The purpose of the gcse essay, ceremony was a new start and forgiveness of all mistakes, except murder.

During this feast villagers would eat corn and take part in lighting of the Sacred Fire. On this occasion villagers also consumed the Black Drink, which is a tea made from reviews thesis, different types of herbs and tobacco. Gothic Literature Statement! Its consumption induced vomiting and it was believed that it purifies the body. The records indicate that as of 1715 they were called 'Creeks' by reviews the English newcomers from South Carolina. Their population at that time numbered about 10,000 in speech analysis, the Deep South. The establishment of South Carolina in 1670, the Creeks begun doing business with their new neighbors.

The new form of business was capturing and selling Florida Indians. However, those profits nearly vanished by 1715 and thesis the trade of deerskins became the main source of profit. Until 1730s skins were deported from the port of Charleston, South Carolina, for English market. In exchange for deerskin, the Creek obtained kettle, guns, and rum. The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word cimarr??n, meaning 'wild' or 'runaway.' Their ancestors lived in the north of Georgia and literature thesis statement Alabama states, migrated southward during the 1700s. Supposedly, they were Creek Indians, who sought refuge from slavery from thesis, northern colonies that were at that time under British control. Upon their arrival to Florida, they were no longer called Seminoles, but Creeks. The majority of Lower Creeks from Georgia settled in Florida that was under Spanish control, at essay that time. By the early 1700s f the native tribes that existed in Florida, prior to the arrival of the Seminole, had been reduced as a result of the Spanish warfare or diseases.

Around 100,000 native Americans occupied Florida in the 1500s, and only 50 survived. Reviews! In 1767 the Upper Creeks from Alabama arrived and established their settlements in the Tampa area. How Do An Essay! Shortly after that, in 1771, the first time name Seminole was used with regard to an actual tribe. In 1778 followed the settlements of the Lower Creeks and a small number of Appalachians. Owning black slaves was a practice that many tribes adopted in their attempt to thesis, assimilate their culture to the culture of the white settlers. However, the Seminoles never did and Africans slaves who escaped the Carolinas and Georgia built settlements along with the how do an essay, Seminoles in thesis, Florida, became known as the Black Seminoles.

Both, the Seminoles and Africans were united by their fear of slavery. 2. BACKGROUND CONTEXT. 2.1. The Creek War. In the colonial period, the Creek allied with the literature thesis, British in the French and Indian War of 1754'63. Creek warriors attacked the Choctaw, allies of the French. They fought against the Cherokee, too. Thesis! Bands of Creek also took side with British troops against the rebels in the American Revolution of 1775'83. As a consequence of that, huge portions of their lands in Alabama and Georgia were ceded by the United States in 1790. Tecumseh, leader of the speech essay, Shawnee, counted on reviews thesis the British support in recovering possessions lost to settlers. He travelled to the south intending to warn native cultures of growing threats posed by the whites.

This led to use of, formation of a group, within the Creek, so called the Red Sticks. 'The increasing divisions in Creek society led to bloodshed in reviews thesis, 1812 when the traditionalists retaliated against the National Council's attempt to punish Creeks involved in attacks against settlers. A Creek civil war erupted, with Red Sticks (as the essay, traditionalists were called) launching attacks on the towns of Creeks friendly to white settlers.' (The Editors of Salem Press, 1995, p. Reviews! 218) In return, the United States got involved into the war, despite the essay use of pesticides, fact that U.S. was already at war with Great Britain. The Southern states roused to take revenge for the Fort Mims Massacre. The army of 5,000 militiamen, aided by Cherokees, and Creeks, under command of reviews thesis General Andrew Jackson destroyed completely two Indian villages: Tallasahatchee and Talladega. The Red Sticks were first defeated at Fort Mims, in 1813, and then in and savers essay, the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in March 1814. The same year Treaty of Fort Jackson forced Creek chiefs to give away 23 million acres of land that was in possession of both the militant Red Sticks and the peaceful White Sticks. Some of reviews thesis Red Sticks managed to escape and settle in Florida. Along with Seminole they managed to remain undefeated, until the use of, First Seminole War (1817-1818). 2.2. The Seminole Wars.

The aftermath of American Revolution brought even deeper division between the Seminoles and reviews thesis the United States. Many Seminoles relied on Britain for how do an essay, support. American settlers argued that Seminoles provided a refuge for runaway slaves. The Seminole became friends with escaped African-American slaves. The slaves were given shelter among Seminole families. A fraction of Seminoles held side with the Red Sticks faction of Creeks in the Creek War (1813-1814). After their defeat, many Red Sticks found shelter with the Seminoles in reviews, Florida. As a justification for leading an army out of Georgia, General Andrew Jackson used the essay analysis, runaway slaves, against the Seminole. This event initiated the First Seminole War of 1817'18. Prior to returning his troops north to Georgia, Seminole villages were completely devastated.

When Jackson was elected president, he intended to send the Seminole to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Along with other Southeast tribes 3,000 Seminole were relocated westward by U.S. soldiers in the 1830s. Reviews! When counting the Seminole casualties starvation and disease should be considered, too. Those who survived were not even allowed to stop and bury their dead. I Have Speech! The Seminole who were not willing to leave Florida begun a guerrilla war. The name for their resistance was the reviews thesis, Second Seminole War of 1835'42. The Treaty of Payne's Landing, was ratified by minority of Seminoles in May 1832. Indians were demanded to give up their Florida lands within three years and english move westward. The U.S. Army arrived in reviews, 1835 to implement the treaty and found Indians unwilling to spenders essay, move and ready for war. The federal government lost 1,500 men and some 500 Seminoles managed to escape.

In 1842, the war ended and majority of Seminoles had been relocated from Florida to Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. A Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was based on disputes, largely over land, between whites and Seminoles who remained in Florida. Since military patrols were in charge of capturing the Indians, it does not surprise that the Seminole population numbered about 200 at the end of Third Seminole War, in 1858. Thesis! The Third Seminole War represents the last attempt of forced removal. 'Approximately three thousand Seminoles were removed to the Indian Territory, voluntarily or otherwise.' (The Editors of Salem Press, 1995, p. 469) 3. SOCIO-POLITICAL ASPECT OF THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT.

The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 paved the way for the removals of Indians that would follow. The eastern Indian communities, even then, presented a problem in the view of i have speech essay American politicians. Thesis! The Jefferson administration bought from the French a vast region of land west of the Mississippi River, for $15 million, Thomas Jefferson had every reason to believe that such vast territory would pay off. Jefferson proposal was with regard to Indians who continued to occupy lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River that the Louisiana Territory could become a new home to gcse essay, these people. Even public, was misguided into thinking that the reviews thesis, federal government would be helping the Indians, and that the Indians and thesis their culture would eventually disappear, if they remained exposed to thesis, the whites. It was presented as a matter of choice, although it had very little to do with the harsh reality Native Indians were about to face. 3.1. How To Write! The Indian Removal Act. The settlements of both the Europeans and the Americans from the early 1600s to the early 1800s were pushing the thesis, boundaries of the Indian territories further inland. Territorial expansion of the United States was often backed up by various treaties, laws and even some of legal rulings supported these actions.

From 1780's the U.S. An Essay! Constitution had already contained articles granting 'Congress and the president exclusive control over Indian affairs. This essentially meant that each of the states was subject to federal regulations in its dealings with local tribes. ' (Marsico, 2010, p. 20) At the time, the state of Georgia was dealing with legitimate means to dissolve the reviews thesis, Cherokee Nation; the Congress passed the Indian Removal Act (1830). It was Andrew Jackson who signed it into law on May 28, 1830. 'This act granted the executive the thesis statement, authority to reviews thesis, negotiate land-exchange treaties with native nations residing within the boundaries of the essay, United States. Cooperating nations would receive Western land in return for ceding their territory.

Thus ''Indian Territory'' in present-day Oklahoma was born.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 37) Even though the Indian Removal Act contained clauses regarding the protection of the tribes that were subject to thesis, removal, it was carried out how do an essay, without this clause being enforced. At first glance, those Americans who believed that it would serve to the benefit of the Native Indians and would protect them of possible extinction even favored it. However, it raised much controversy among numerous organizations; especially the ones in the Northeast were hard opponents of the legislation. Some of the thesis, statesmen and literature thesis statement senators opposed to the notions of removal. Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey was among the loudest opponents: 'We have crowded the reviews, tribes upon how do an essay, a few miserable acres on our southern frontier,' he proclaimed.' (Bowes, 2009, p. 19) In spite of the opposition efforts, the passage of the Indian Removal Act in reviews thesis, the House of Representatives was ensured by a vote of 102 to 97. 'In the succeeding ten years the Atlantic and i have speech essay Gulf states were cleared of the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles.

Some went resignedly, others at bayonet point.' (McNickle, 1973, p. Reviews! 74) Early XIX century witnessed an essay use of pesticides increase in thesis, the number of essay non-Indian settlers. In 1820s, a number of the Choctaw migrated west of the Mississippi. However, the majority was not willing to leave their homeland. The reason that some left voluntary was the, the Treaty of thesis Dancing Rabbit Creek that was signed between the Choctaw negotiators and how to the government representatives Colonel John Coffee and Secretary of reviews War John Eaton, on September 27, 1830. This treaty is regarded as one of the largest transfers of land between U.S. Government and Native Americans. In sequence of events, this presents the first removal treaty enforced under the gcse, Indian Removal Act. The Choctaw gave away 11 million acres of the Choctaw land in exchange for 15 million acres in the Indian Territory. The U.S. Congress ratified the Treaty in 1831.

The treaty contained a clause applicable to those who remained to obtain U.S. citizenship. Reviews Thesis! Some 1,300 Choctaws, who remained in the state of Mississippi, became citizens of the United States. It is gcse shakespeare essay estimated that around 15,000 Choctaws left and found their new homes in the Indian Territory, i.e., state of Oklahoma. The word Oklahoma is of Choctaw origin, meaning red people. On the grounds of the Curtis Act, their government was disassembled, as it was a precondition for acknowledging the Oklahoma status of thesis a state. Subsequently, the Choctaws ended up divided into spenders, two distinct groups: the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians that gained federal recognition in 1945. The Mowa Band of Choctaw presently inhabiting state of Alabama is not recognized by the federal government. 3.2. Andrew Jackson.

Andrew Jackson was seventh President of the United States. He was born in 1767 in reviews, Waxhaw, South Carolina. I Have Speech Essay Analysis! He studied law. In 1788 he moved to Nashville. During his career, he worked as prosecutor, judge, Tennessee congressman and senator from 1823 to 1825. He fought as general in the War of 1812 defeating the Creek Indians in 1814 and the British at reviews thesis New Orleans in 1815.

Three years later, in 1818, he undertook another military assignment to chase off Seminole Indians into Spanish Florida. John Quincy Adams won the presidential elections of 1824. Four years later, Jackson defeated Adams and became the seventh president of the United States. Spenders Essay! Jackson was a founder of the Democratic Party. He supported extension of thesis slavery into we start an essay, the West. He was a political opponent of the Whig Party and Congress on reviews matters such as the Bank of the gothic statement, United States. He was known for his rage. He used to challenge men to reviews thesis, duels and sometimes even causing deadly consequences. During his military career, he fought against the Red Stick Creeks and Seminoles, and the War of 1812 in the Battle of New Orleans; he earned a status of a national hero. 'Jackson cultivated his military reputation as an ''Indian fighter.' He often acted as a loose cannon, disobeying orders or creating his own, in order to further the how to write heading, cause of reviews Manifest Destiny, the spread of U.S. control over the North American continent.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 85) In Jackson's perception the greatest threat to settlement and expansion of the United States, was the question of gcse english Native Indians.

In the eyes of the common man Jackson was regarded not only as a war hero, but also as one of their own, a common man. His presidential career, in two subsequent terms, lasted from March 4, 1829 to reviews thesis, March 4, 1837. Jackson is perhaps best known for gcse english, providing the environment and tracing the route for the Trail of Tears through the Indian Removal Act. The 'Indian fighter' ratified nearly seventy removal treaties. The majority of those treaties provided for relocation and primarily by the use of reviews thesis force of nearly 50,000 eastern Indians to Indian Territory with aim to make available millions of acres of english shakespeare essay land to white settlers. 'Although the Trail of Tears itself did not occur until the administration of Martin Van Buren, Jackson's former vice president and hand-picked successor, Jackson was responsible for providing the key ingredients necessary for removal to take place.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 86) Jackson's approach to the ''Indian question'' is perhaps best exemplified by his ignorance toward judiciary and non-interference regarding Georgia's oppression of the Cherokee Nation. 'Georgia lawmakers devised a lottery system to redistribute Cherokee land to Georgia citizens. Reviews Thesis! The Cherokees appealed to the national government, claiming that the Georgia state laws, by violating the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation, also violated international treaties that the use of, United States had made with the Cherokees.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) According to John Marshall in case of Cherokee Nation versus Georgia, in 1831, the treaties with the thesis, Cherokee Nation were not to be regarded in terms of international treaties, instead native nations were to be regarded as ''domestic dependent nations.'' Further on, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over this matter since the Cherokee Nation was not a foreign nation. Therefore, they were not entitled to sue in federal court that would eventually provide them with legal grounds for prevention of further cessions of their lands as well as their removal from a dream speech, tribal lands. However, this case was important as the Cherokees based on this interpretation of reviews a legal matter decided to bring another case before the court.

The second case Worcester versus Georgia before the Supreme Court was in 1832. Essay! This case was initiated by white missionary Samuel Worcester who sued the state of Georgia on the grounds of imposing its laws over the Cherokee Nation. 'Georgia had passed an reviews act that required all whites who lived within the Cherokee Nation to apply for a state permit and swear an oath of allegiance to Georgia.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) Worcester was a minister within the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. His non-compliance with the Georgia act resulted in subsequent arrest. He was tried and sentenced to four years of hard labor in a Georgia court. According to Marshall the relations with native nations were within a jurisdiction of the national government, therefore Georgia State was not entitled to intervene into an issue involving 'a group the and savers, United States had already recognized and agreed to reviews, protect.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) The state of Georgia refused to release Worcester. Gothic Literature Thesis Statement! 'President Jackson, the so-called old Indian fighter, is reported to have said in response with reference to the chief justice of the U.S. Thesis! Supreme Court, John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it (Mooney, 1900: 114).' (Russell, 1987, p. 116) However, none of the cases tried before the U.S. Supreme Court served its purpose and the Trail of Tears was inevitable.

President had at his disposal a discretionary power, to authorize forceful removal, since such clause was incorporated in many removal treaties and bills. Furthermore, those policies included the deadlines, and in some cases even prior to the expiry of the deadline, force was used, if deemed necessary. Whether enforcement of the bills justifies the use of force is disputable. Since historical sources indicate that vast majority of Indians opposed the thesis statement, removals, it was obvious that if government wanted to enforce removal bills, it had to be, by reviews force. 3.3. The Treaty of New Echota.

The Treaty of New Echota was named after New Echota, the Cherokee capitol in Georgia, where it was signed. The United States as a result of this cession claimed the Cherokee lands in the Southeast in exchange for lands in Indian Territory and $15 million. 'The U.S. Senate ratified the analysis, Treaty of New Echota by one vote, and on May 23, 1836, President Andrew Jackson proclaimed it in effect.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 55) About twenty thousand Cherokees were to voluntarily leave their homes as of reviews thesis May 23rd, 1838. Heading! Jackson remained firm and acted accordingly, The Treaty of New Echota had to be implemented, regardless of evident hesitations by his own men. U.S. Troops commander, initially appointed to thesis, implement the Treaty of New Echota, was General John Ellis Wool. Upon his arrival, he was faced with the protesting by the Cherokee to both, the process of disarmament and the Treaty, itself. 'Wool asked to be relieved of his mission, and he was.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 55) In December 1837, the Cherokee were notified by the government that the clause in the Treaty of New Echota under which, they were given deadline of two years from the ratification of the treaty, to leave, would be enforced. In early 1838, and A delegation headed by gothic thesis John Ross and other Cherokee leaders, paid a visit to Washington, D.C. to reviews, present the signatures of 15,665 Cherokees who were against the Treaty of New Echota, but the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs had voted and authorized the Treaty implementation. 'The U.S. Spenders Essay! secretary of war told John Ross that Jackson no longer recognized any government among the reviews, Eastern Cherokees, and neither Ross nor anyone else would be allowed to challenge further the essay analysis, legitimacy of the removal treaty.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. Reviews! 55) Approximately two thousand Cherokees, which is some 15 percent of the how do an essay, Cherokee Nation, acted out of their own will and joined ''Old Settlers'' in Indian Territory, along with members of the Treaty Party. According to Jackson no further communications with John Ross, in reviews, writing or orally, on how to heading this matter is allowed.

When Jackson's second presidential mandate ended, the White House successor became, Martin Van Buren. He commenced his presidential duties in March 1837. Since he was vice president during Jackson's mandate, he made it known that he will stick with Jackson's policies. Thesis! Out of sympathy with the Cherokee cause, citizens around the United States sent messages and petitions; however, Van Buren organized seven thousand soldiers to prepare for action. 'Time had run out. On May 23, 1838, the military roundup of the Cherokee Nation began.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 57) The Cherokee were disarmed and General Winfield Scott was assigned to monitor their removal.

'On May 10, 1838, General Scott issued the following proclamation:' 'Cherokees! The President of the United States has sent me, with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience to the Treaty of essay use of 1835, to join that part of your people who are already established in prosperity, on the other side of the Mississippi. . . . The full moon of May is already on the wane, and before another shall have passed away, every Cherokee man, woman and child . . . must be in motion to thesis, join their brethren in spenders, the far West.' Scott's proclamation clearly outlined that no Cherokee would remain in reviews, the territory, they all had to 'move' and essay that Army would reassure the reviews thesis, implementation of the Treaty, by force. 4. EXODUS OF NATIVE INDIAN TRIBES. 4.1. The Trail of Tears. It took four weeks in May and June, to carry out four military operations (Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama).

Approximately seventeen thousand Cherokees rounded up at gunpoint were removed to various containment camps designated for the Cherokee prisoners. Those camps proved to be inadequate as no basic sanitation was provided for the prisoners. The roundups were carried out in a way that took the Cherokees by surprise. And Savers Essay! Vast majority of families were separated, husbands from wives and thesis children, and many had only their clothes on them, and all other possessions were left behind. 'John G. Thesis! Burnett, a soldier involved with the roundup, described the operation: 'Men working in the fields were arrested and reviews driven to the stockades. Women were dragged from how do we start to write, their homes by soldiers whose language they could not understand. Children were often separated from reviews thesis, their parents and driven into spenders essay, the stockades with the sky for reviews, a blanket and the earth for a pillow. . . .' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 58) John Wool, though initially appointed as the military commander of the removal campaign was replaced by Major General Winfield Scott, also known as ''Old Fuss and Feathers,'' Scott was a renown veteran, he fought in the War of 1812, the Blackhawk War and the Seminole Wars. ' Scott looked at his mission without enthusiasm; when he realized that many of the gothic, Georgia troops seemed as interested in killing the Cherokees as removing them, he realized the extent of the challenge he faced.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. Thesis! 57) The first exodus westward occurred from spring 1838 and lasted to the summer. The first groups marched the gcse shakespeare, route of reviews 800 miles.

The intense heat had deadly consequences for children and i have speech essay analysis the elderly. The second exodus was in the fall and winter of reviews thesis 1838-39. Unlike the first exodus that was in the heat, the second one was in the rainy season and for that reason the wagons sunk down in the mud, and with freezing temperatures and snow, the journey got even worse. Numerous reasons need to be taken into account when considering the Cherokee casualties, from disease, food shortages, and weather conditions to failure of the U.S. troops to protect the Cherokee from attacks by essay bandits. Initially, the Cherokees were loaded on steamboats, taken down the Tennessee and Ohio rivers to the Mississippi and reviews thesis from there forced to take the to write an essay, land routes to Indian Territory. Indeed, a few thousand Cherokee were removed, as planned. Since this removal was undertaken in the hottest season, due to sickness, human losses were enormous. the Cherokee National Council, John Ross along with other chiefs made a proposal to General Scott that the Cherokee be allowed to postpone the removal to the fall, when the reviews, weather is milder, to prevent further casualties. 'That request was granted, and in October, 1838, the Cherokee began to remove themselves, primarily over land, in 13 recorded groups averaging about 1,000 people each.' (Russell, 1987, p. Literature Thesis! 117) The first and the second exodus in combination with the dreadful conditions of the confinement camps caused the deaths of nearly 4,000 Cherokee, which represents a quarter of their total number.

The death toll rose even with the arrival of the Cherokee in the Indian Territory, due to epidemics and continuous lack of reviews food. Other Southeast tribes primarily the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole shared the destiny of the Cherokee. Perhaps the closest to the exact figures of Cherokee population, which was primarily affected by a dream the Trail of Tears, is statistical information provided by Russell Thornton. According to Thornton: 'A census of the Eastern Cherokees (sometimes called the Henderson Roll) was conducted in 1835: it enumerated 16,542 Cherokees. Thesis! By this time there may have been 5,000 Cherokees west of the Mississippi River: from 1828 to 1834, 2,802 Cherokees had registered for removal (plus 578 blacks and 47 whites. I Have A Dream Essay Analysis! Nevertheless, by reviews thesis 1834 only 1,171 Cherokees (plus 293 blacks) had actually emigrated, according to official records).' (Russell, The Cherokees: A Population History, 1992, p. 50) The removals that lasted from 1831 to 1834 were carried out under inhumane and horrifying conditions, such as lack of food, blankets and wagons. Sporadic attacks from ambush by bandits were not prevented by the U.S. soldiers. Spenders And Savers! It is estimated that nearly a quarter of the Choctaw died during the marches, while those who survived the dreadful journey, after their arrival in the Indian Territory, died as a result of various diseases and starvation. Theoretically, the Indian Territory was regarded as a permanent homeland for many tribes. 'Originally, the promised region stretched from the state boundaries of Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa to the 100th meridian, about 300 miles at the widest point. Nonetheless, with increasing non-Indian settlement west of the Mississippi in the mid- 1800s, the Indian Territory was reduced again and again.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) As of reviews 1854, the north of the Indian Territory included the territories of and savers Kansas and thesis Nebraska that were later recognized states status. From 1866 onwards, tribes situated in those regions were resettled to the south, allegedly reserved for the Southeast tribes, also known as the 'Five Civilized Tribes.' In the 1880s, arrival of the Boomers followed and again Indian reservations became matter of interests of the Whites in how do to write an essay, pursuit of more Indian lands for settlement.

Most of the thesis, relocations of the Five Civilized Tribes were carried out on how to write the grounds of the Indian Removal Act of thesis 1830. The political viewpoint of write heading President Jackson on Indian question was backed up by his own views that the 'red men' were not capable of integration into the society of the Whites, nor did they have the intelligence to coexist in the white society. Moreover, according to him, they had to accept Christianity; otherwise they are destined to eventual extinction. Reviews! Further on, the government's policy was to be welcomed by the Native Indians, as it will, at the expense of the government, carry out the relocation. Such policy would positively affect other Native Indians, to follow the pattern of the 'five civilized tribes'. President Andrew Jackson' in his Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830) outlines the relevance of the government's policy, as follows: 'The waves of use of pesticides population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to reviews, acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange, and, at the expense of the United States, to send them to land where their existence may be prolonged and perhaps made perpetual.' The map shows numerous routes that were taken by Native Indian tribes at use of pesticides the time of forcible removals from 1830 to thesis, 1840. The Choctaw were the first tribe forcibly removed from their homeland. Non-Indian settlers had territorial aspiration toward their lands. Essay Analysis! State governments just as the federal government kept side with whites over Indians. Ironical was their role in the Creek War, when the Choctaw had fought under Andrew Jackson, who would later become president of the United States and mastermind of the 'legitimate' removal of the Native Indians.

Despite the fact that the Choctaw were not represented by the majority, a few members of the Choctaw were talked into signing the reviews thesis, Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, in 1830. This Treaty led to ceding of all Choctaw lands in the state of Mississippi. Those who disapproved the Treaty remained and hid out in the Mississippi and Louisiana woods. However, the vast majority were made to move westward by U.S. Army.

However, the Choctaw who reached their new homelands, designated by the U.S. How To Heading! government, persisted and had undergone reorganization as a tribe and reviews started a new life. They even adopted a republican form of government, modeled after that of the United States and many customs of the we start an essay, 'civilized' Whites, and that is how the Choctaw along with the Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole, gained a reputation as one of the 'Five Civilized Tribes' During the Creek removal of 1836 and following their arrival in the Indian Territory, out of 15,000 who were to reviews, move to the Southeast, about 3,500 died as a consequence of hunger, disease and ambushed bandit attacks. 'Pressures caused by non-Indian expansion did not cease, however. The General Allotment Act of how to 1887, designed to force the reviews, breakup of tribal landholdings for increased development, caused the literature thesis statement, eventual loss of much acreage. What was supposed to exist permanently for native peoples as the Indian Territory became the state of Oklahoma in 1907 (Oklahoma is a Muskogean word, coined by the Choctaw Allen Wright to reviews thesis, mean 'red people,' and first applied to use of, the western half of the Indian Territory in 1890.)' (Waldman, 2006, p. 71) 4.3. Georgia Gold Rush. The Native Indians inhabiting the area of the Appalachian Mountains were aware of the gold resources long before the arrival of the first Spanish expeditions in their lands. The gold was discovered in the Blue Ridge Mountains around 1733, and for almost 100 years the site remained unmined. Frank Logan, farmer and reviews prospector, takes credit for discovering gold on Dukes Creek, a tributary of the Chattahoochee River in 1828.

America's first gold rush was on horizon. Many explorers told stories of Indians wearing gold. One such story was that of Diego Miruelo, who was supposedly given a small quantity of gold when trading some goods with Florida Indians. However, Hernando de Soto is known for launching the first grand expedition in essay, pursuit of gold in 1540. Reviews! Thousands of prospectors in late 1829 rushed to North Georgia, also known as the Cherokee Nation, looking for gold . ' The sudden influx of miners into the Cherokee Nation was known even at the time as the Great Intrusion. One writer said in the Cherokee Phoenix, Our neighbors who regard no law and pay no respects to the laws of humanity are now reaping a plentiful harvest. . . . We are an abused people. The gold was discovered in Georgia on October 27, 1828. Benjamin Parks, who lived in Hall County (now Lumpkin County), is known as the first discoverer. Among other first discoverers is Georgia prospector Frank Logan. Supposedly, Logan on his way back to the North Carolina gold fields, discovered gold in 1828 on Dukes Creek. The story of Benjamin Parks is considered unsubstantiated because he initially claimed he found the gold in 1827 and leased the land to mine, but he was not the owner of write heading that land until July, 1828.

The news of gold mines spread and more men were lured into making money, the reviews, easy way. 'Whispers of the gold in Georgia spread slowly, but the trickle turned to a flood when the Georgia Journal ran a story on Gold. two mines in Habersham.' 4.4. Essay! Assimilation and Allotment. Controversial political views outlined a necessity for their removal. Some argued that the Indians could have remained, if assimilated; while others proposed their removal, as they had no capacity for assimilation into superior and technically advanced society of the whites. Either way, the choice was not to be made by the Indians.

Numerous arguments in favor and against reviews thesis, removal legislation come down to one distinct term ' assimilation. Much debate evolved around the process of assimilation. Whether Indians could assimilate or had no capacity of it is we start to write irrelevant, as they could not be accepted for who they are. They were deprived of right to live in accordance with their own culture and customs, in their traditional lands, using their native languages. Some 50 years after the Removal of Native Indians, more precisely on reviews thesis February 8th, 1887, Congress passed the gothic literature, General Allotment Act (or the Dawes Severalty Act). 'U.S. law providing for the distribution of Indian reservation land among individual tribesmen, with the aim of creating responsible farmers in the white man's image. It was sponsored in reviews, several sessions of gcse english shakespeare essay Congress by Sen.

Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts and finally was enacted in February 1887. Under its terms, the president determined the suitability of the recipients and issued the grants, usually by a formula of 160 acres to each head of reviews thesis household and 80 acres to each unmarried adult, with the stipulation that no grantee could alienate his land for 25 years.' It also enabled the Indians who received land, to become U.S. Use Of! citizens, meaning they had to comply with the federal, state, and local laws. Although it was aimed at the welfare of the Indians, there were no enough votes in Congress to pass it. Amendments to the Act were made, in terms of any remaining land, after the allotment to the Indians, would be offered for public sale and then passing the Act followed. 'By 1889, 2 million acres had been bought from the Indians, usually at ridiculously low prices, and thesis thrown open to non-Indian settlement. Write Heading! The Oklahoma Land Run took place that year, with settlers lining up at a starting point to race for thesis, choice pieces. Those who cheated and entered the lands open for settlement were called 'sooners.' In 1890, Oklahoma Territory was formed from these lands.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) The leaders of Cherokee and Choctaw leaders rejected allotment and decided to use of pesticides, resolve the thesis, matter at federal courts. In response, Congress passed the Curtis Act of 1898, with aim to dissolve their tribal governments and courts. Furthermore, The Curtis Act was, in a way prolongation of land Allotment policy. English Shakespeare! The U.S. Reviews Thesis! government's policies were structured around regaining Indian lands. How To Write Heading! In 1905, a proposal to the federal government was made by representatives of the Five Civilized Tribes for establishment of a separate Indian state, known as Sequoyah. 'Legislation was submitted to Congress but was not enacted. Oklahoma, all of which had once been Indian land, became a state in 1907.

During this period, in 1924, the federal government passed the Citizenship Act, conferring citizenship on all Native Americans. Two states'Arizona and New Mexico' delayed giving Indians voting rights until much later. In 1934, with the Indian Reorganization Act (or the Wheeler-Howard Act), the policies of Assimilation and Allotment ended.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) It was not until President Franklin D. Reviews! Roosevelt and his commissioner of Indian affairs, John Collier appeared on the political stage that the Native Indians would initiate the process of rediscovering their lost culture. Spenders And Savers Essay! Those who imposed the reviews thesis, assimilation policy had intended to diminish the relevance of Indian heritage and reorganize their tribal features to fit into their own. Spenders And Savers Essay! However, the tribes that were encircled with the allotment process never repossessed the reviews, lands lost to whites.

The term reservation is applied to essay pesticides, most of tribally held lands in other states. Remaining Indian lands in reviews thesis, Oklahoma are referred to as Indian trust areas. 5. How To Write Heading! THE TRAIL OF TEARS, WATER AND LAND ROUTES. 'Various scholars have speculated that the camp conditions might have been responsible for perhaps one-third to one-half of all of the deaths associated with the Trail of Tears, though the records leave little chance for anything more than speculation. Scott divided the camps into three military districts, each with its own plan for removal to Indian Territory involving land and water routes.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 59) The tribes were made to take two main routes to reach Oklahoma. Each route went through the Ozarks; the water route, also called the reviews thesis, southern route went through Arkansas and the land route, also known as northern route, went through the Ozarks of how to write southern Missouri. The Native American Indians were removed from the southeastern United States to reviews thesis, west of the use of, Mississippi. Reviews Thesis! The outrageous 800-mile trail, from Georgia to eastern Oklahoma, took place during 1838 and 1839. The illustration presents both main routes, i.e., the land and water route. Illustration 2 - Routes of the how to write, Trail of Tears from the National Park Service. The territorial aspirations of the Whites were fueled by the discovery of gold in Georgia in 1828, which was confirmed in 1830.

President Andrew Jackson's policy on the Indian Removal corresponds to that timeframe and that same year Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and from that moment on it was 'legitimate' to remove Native Indians from their ancestral lands to so called Indian Territory or reservations. The map illustrates ceded lands, routes of Indian removal and Indian reservations. President Jackson outlined in his Second Annual Message to Congress on December 6, 1830 that: 'The consequences of reviews a speedy removal will be important to gothic literature thesis, the United States, to individual States, and to the Indians themselves'It puts an end to all possible danger of collision between the authorities of the General and State Governments on thesis account of the Indians. It will place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters.' ' European settlements in the Southeast of the U.S: begun with explorer expeditions in how to heading, XVI century. Reviews! The Spanish established missions in Florida and Georgia, and in gcse english, 1607, the reviews thesis, English established Jamestown, Virginia. Later XVII century is marked by spenders essay the English who took part in Indian slavery and deerskin trade in reviews thesis, South Carolina, and exploitation of the Mississippi River by the French.

Perhaps the most genocidal event was triggered by the passage of the we start, 1830 Indian Removal Act. Known as 'Indian Fighter', President Andrew Jackson authorized the use of force to implement it. It provided European settlers with vast regions of rich soil to establish farms on lands inhabited by the 'Five Civilized Tribes'. Namely, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole presented a role-model of successful assimilation into whites' society and it was from reviews thesis, 1830-1839, that systematical removals were enforced upon them. The routes they were forced to take, from their southeastern lands to present-day Oklahoma, became symbolically known as the 'Trail of Tears'.

According to data from i have speech analysis, 1980, 60,000 Cherokee, 24,000 Choctaw, 15,500 Creek, 6,000 Chickasaw, and 5,000 Seminole live in Oklahoma. Some argue that genocide is reviews difficult to identify while others have no doubt about its classification. Genocide in broader context applies to how do to write an essay, the acts 'committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. ' The Trail of Tears cannot be categorized only in terms of tragedy of the 'Five Civilized Tribes'. Modern society has name for it and this event is to be named for what it is. Reviews Thesis! The intention to eradicate Native Indians may be questionable; however the Indian Removal Act clearly outlined that Indians may become extinct or their lands abandoned: The fact that Indian Removal Act was an instrument in the hands of U.S: government to relocate five Native Indian Nations without their consent, by we start force, constitutes crime. 'The crime of genocide has two elements: intent and action 'it must be inferred from a systematic pattern of coordinated acts.

Intent is reviews different from how to write, a motive. Whatever may be the motive for the crime (land expropriation, national security, territorial integrity, etc.,) if the perpetrators commit acts intended to destroy a group, even part of a group, it is genocide.' Bowes, John P. (2009). The Trail of Tears: Removal in the South (Landmark Events in thesis, Native American History). I Have Essay! New York: Infobase Publishing. Marsico, K. (2010).

Perspectives on the Trail of Tears: The Tragedy of American Indians. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. McNickle, D. Thesis! (1973). Gothic Literature! Indian Survivals and Renewals. New York: Oxford University Press. Rasmussen, Kent R., the Editors of Salem Press. (1995). American Indian Tribes. Pasadena: Salem Press, Inc. Sturgis, Amy H. (2007).

The Trail of Tears and Indian Removal, Westport: Greenwood Press. Thornton, R. (1990). American Indian Holocaust and reviews thesis Survival: A Population History since 1492, (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 186). University of Oklahoma Press. Thornton, R. (1992).

The Cherokees: A Population History, University of how to heading Nebraska Press. Waldman, C. (2006). Reviews! Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, 3rd Ed., New York: Checkmark Books. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Language essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on statement hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of thesis expertise, and how do we start we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Language work in reviews thesis, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Language essay was submitted to us by a student in order to a dream essay analysis, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, The Trail Of Tears American Indian Genocide . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/english-language/trail-tears.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and reviews thesis coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.

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philip lopate essay SIGN IN to access Harper’s Magazine. Need to create a login? Want to change your email address or password? Forgot your password? 2. Select Email/Password Information. 3. Thesis! Enter your new information and click on Save My Changes. Portrait Inside My Head and To Show and To Tell. Phillip Lopate on eclectic curiosities and how do we start the old-school essayists. Phillip Lopate. Reviews Thesis! Photograph by Jill Krementz.

Few writers have investigated the complexity of their own minds as thoroughly as Phillip Lopate. For more than thirty years, he has essayed on topics ranging from a dream speech analysis, cinema to the history of Manhattan’s waterfront to his distaste for reviews dinner parties. His newest books, Portrait Inside My Head: Essays and To Show and essay pesticides To Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction , were both released this month from reviews, Free Press. The former is a miscellaneous collection; the i have a dream essay analysis, latter is on reviews, the craft and we start to write an essay styles of various essayists, and includes the essay “Between Insanity and Fat Dullness: How I became an Emersonian,” originally published in the January 2011 issue of Harper’s Magazine . Lopate agreed to meet me at his house in reviews thesis, Brooklyn on Christmas Eve morning. He greeted me in his living room, which had become a staging area for the imminent arrival of holiday guests, and i have speech suggested we go up to his study, a small cube of a room on the top floor that was brimming with books older than me. Among them was a copy of an influential book he’d edited, The Art of the reviews, Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present (1997), an essential text for upstart essayists and students of writing. I took a seat, and essay he wheeled his chair close enough for our knees to touch, awaiting my questions. JG: How do you define your role as an essayist? PL: I see myself as a transmitter of a tradition. As you can see from the books in my office, I’m far more interested in Max Beerbohm than I am in, say, the latest attempt to hybridize fiction and reviews thesis nonfiction. When I teach, I’m trying to convey my love for Montaigne and Hazlitt and Lamb, Virginia Woolf and James Baldwin and George Orwell.

Their sentences excite me tremendously. Spenders And Savers Essay! I can’t help being much more plugged into the past. I experienced the reviews thesis, avant-garde as a kind of how do we start to write an essay bullying influence when I was quite young. Reviews! I grew up in New York. One of my theories is that native New Yorkers are more traditional and that the avant?garde always comes from the provinces. In the how to heading, arts, it’s people like Robert Rauschenberg and reviews Jasper Johns and Andy Warhol who believe the hype about New York and spenders come to New York and add to the avant-garde. Whereas a New Yorker tends to say, “Yeah, yeah, OK. Avant-garde, so what?”

When I went to college, I was surrounded by people who were interested in reviews thesis, William Burroughs, John Ashbery, Beckett and post-Beckett. The whole sensibility was, “Beckett has done this, now how can we advance his heroic move?” I thought, “Well, maybe I’ll read Henry Fielding.” If I need to experience avant-garde, I’ll read Don Quixote or Tristram Shandy . From “The State of Nonfiction Today,” in i have a dream, To Show and To Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction: But if consciousness isolates, it also heals and consoles. Thesis! In my own writing I am trying to say, among other things, “This is my consciousness, now don’t feel so guilty about yours. If you have perverse, curmudgeonly conflicted, antisocial thoughts; know that others have them too.” (9) JG: In your new book on craft, To Show and To Tell, you talk about the excitement of essaying sentence by sentence. What advice do you give young writers about crafting a sentence? PL: My first advice is to immerse yourself in reading — and not just your contemporaries.

To investigate syntax and not just to write a simple, clear, seven-word sentence. How Do We Start To Write An Essay! To some degree, Strunk and White have done a lot of damage by stressing clarity and concreteness as the thesis, only important elements in writing. A complex thought requires a complex syntax. It requires semicolons; it requires dependent clauses; it requires following out the a dream speech essay analysis, thought. For me, it was very helpful to read philosophical writers, because they wanted to think at the highest possible level. I read things like Rilke’s Letters of a Young Poet or Gaston Bachelard’s Poetics of Space. Also Walter Benjamin, Theodore Adorno, Roland Barthes, and Susan Sontag. I became invested in the adventure of the mind. Reviews! Their sentences tend to be more paradoxical. One of the and savers essay, things I try to do, which Emil Cioran talks about, is to think against myself, because if you’re just writing to persuade there won’t be any surprises, but if you catch yourself and reviews say, “Yes, but . . .” or, “What’s the other point of view to this?” or, “That’s all very well and good, but so what?” then you create more tension. That’s one of the ways that sentences can get more interesting, if you stage a confrontation between parts of yourself.

JG: Where do you begin your essays? PL: That’s something I got from Montaigne. Write! He liked to hang out in a mental place where he really didn’t quite understand what he was thinking. He was comfortable with being confused or being aware that he was being pulled in different directions. I often start out in a place that feels like a baffling cul-de-sac. I think, “How did I get here? What’s going on?” I can’t start out in a self-pleased place because then there’s no tension.

There’s no place for the essay to go. I’m often exploring these paradoxes and anomalies inside and outside myself. JG: How much is tension evoked by the chosen persona on the page? PL: Max Beerbohm says, “The only people who take themselves very seriously are madmen.” You have to be able to take a step back and have perspective. That is always a trait of the reviews, best essayists and memoirists. One of the reasons autobiographies and and savers essay memoirs used to reviews thesis be written by older people and not twenty-somethings is that they wanted to be able to look back on the ups and a dream speech essay analysis downs of reviews life with some perspective. JG: Perspective allows the writer to english shakespeare get away with being wrong, right? PL: Yes, absolutely.

One of the strategies of the essay is, “Hey, we’re just a little form here, not the Nobel prize–winning form. Thesis! So let’s have some fun because we’re not going after the and savers essay, big bucks.” Essay collections are not going to get the big advances. You start out with the form’s tropism toward the small, the minor, the overlooked, the neglected. The persona of the essayist is not one of bluster or megalomania, it’s more one of self-mocking. It’s part and parcel of the genre to thesis have modesty in oneself and perspective. Spenders And Savers! Making fun of yourself is thesis, nothing new. Gothic Literature! It’s a little bit of sugar that makes the essay go down. JG: In To Show and To Tell you talk about the language of authority. Where does it come from if an reviews, essayist should be self-questioning?

PL: That’s the key question of younger writers. “That sounds all well and good, Lopate, but where does your authority come from? How can I do the same thing?” Authority is earned over a long period of write time. It’s also attained by bluffing. I wrote a book called Being With Children (Poseidon, 1989). Reviews Thesis! Afterward I was asked by literature thesis, the New York Times Book Review to thesis review a book about education. My book had been about education, but I realized that for me to literature thesis statement pretend to be a reviewer for the New York Times Book Review I would have to reviews invent a persona, invent a character, somebody who felt very comfortable about essay, doing this, which I hadn’t done before. I was also a ghostwriter when I was younger, and that meant I had to reviews inhabit an authority that wasn’t mine. I would pretend to use of be psychologists, architects, educators, and so on for the guys who hired me. Reviews Thesis! It begins with kind of a fiction. Essay Use Of! What I was responding to was tone. I was trying to get a tone of authority.

That’s something I write about in To Show and To Tell . While part of the authority comes from aping a certain kind of adult tone, part of it comes from owning your confusion. Reviews! So you say, “I don’t know this, that means what I do know has extra authority behind it.” You can trust this writer because the writer is telling us that he doesn’t have all the answers. You develop more credibility for spenders and savers essay the things you do stand behind. JG: Why did you begin Portrait Inside My Head with an essay titled “In Defense of the Miscellaneous Essay Collection”? PL: I’m rebelling against a marketing problem, which is reviews, that publishers often want you to write about one thing so they can pitch it, so it can be described it in one line. One of the decisions I made in how do an essay, this most recent collection was that I’m going to reviews thesis put in personal essays, literary essays, architectural essays, film essays because all of this is stuff I’m thinking about. I Have Speech Analysis! I trust that the personality of the writer will hold it together.

Miscellaneous. It’s considered a curse. “Oh, my God! This is just miscellaneous. Reviews! This is just random.” I’d say, “Yeah, yeah. So? What’s so bad about that?” I’m interested in many different things, most of us are. Shakespeare! I’m advocating for that range. Inside my head there’s the thesis, lover, the parent, the intellectual, the non-intellectual, and the sports fan.

Sometimes sports take up 80 percent of my brain. I wake up in the morning and think, “Who’s on the roster of the and savers, New York Knicks?” JG: What’s the secret engine of your writing? PL: My engine is curiosity. I’m much more drawn to curiosity than I am to obsession. To me, obsession is someone going on and on in a boring way. Thesis! Obsession is an essay, overrated, but curiosity will take you a long way. When I wrote my book Waterfront (Anchor, 2005), I had to keep investigating things I knew nothing about, like marine biology, engineering, and reviews thesis the politics of big infrastructure projects.

The learning led me through my curiosity until I was able to write something. You don’t have to know everything about use of, it. You just have to know enough to be able to write about it, and in that way the writer and the reporter are similar. I’m an amateur scholar, a library rat. I didn’t become a professional scholar, but I’m always nibbling at different subjects and trying to learn more about reviews thesis, them because I do think that there’s a limit to how much you can write about yourself. You write about your traumas early, and then you’ve used them up. I often tell my students to develop some expertise and some specialties so that they’ll always be called upon to a dream speech write about thesis, something.

It could be bowling; it could be oil production; it could be anything. The point is that you immerse yourself in matter. Use Of Pesticides! This is something that writers like Balzac understood. You need material. We’re living in a material universe. We can’t write out of our feelings. Reviews Thesis! We need to understand how things are done, how things are made. You have to keep taking that self out to explore the world, and how do we start that’s one of the key skills, to thesis be able to find the balance between self and the world in a dream analysis, your writing. I developed a lot of thesis sub-specialties to do this. They include movies, architecture, urbanism, education, the essay itself, literature in general, so I’m not bothered by essay use of pesticides, writer’s block because there’s always something else that I can write about. JG: How hard is it to find the balance between the self and the world for you?

PL: Certainly, being able to thesis be alone with yourself and spenders essay being able to become friends with yourself are very important skills for anybody who wants to write. I’ve known students who were brilliant and verbally very accomplished. Reviews! They had a hard time just planting their ass in a chair and being alone. Shakespeare! It’s not a collaborative art like being a symphony instrumentalist or being a filmmaker. Thesis! You have to accept the solitude. I am a somewhat gregarious person.

That is, I do not ever want to just be home writing. I don’t want it. I use teaching as a source of energy, to replenish me. I’m glad to be able to leave the house sometimes. There’s this rhythm of going out and coming back. I think of essay use of it like an actor’s role. The actor has to be alone in reviews, the dressing room then has to go out and perform in front of an audience.

He can’t always be onstage. A Dream Essay! Sometimes professional actors seem very reserved when they’re not acting. They’re not putting out a great deal because when they’re not acting they’re in-gathering. It isn’t easy for the loved ones of writers. Thesis! To some degree, when you’re a writer you’re always writing in your head. Sometimes my wife or my daughter will say, “What is that expression on your face?

What’s the thesis, matter?” I’ll say, “I’m just kind of thesis writing a thing in my head. ” It’s thinking. One time my daughter said, “You just sit there in the chair and think?” I said, “Yeah, you should try it some time.” More from Jeffery Gleaves: Discussing On Immunity: An Inoculation with Eula Biss. Eula Biss discusses vaccinations, motherhood, and metaphors. Leslie Jamison on we start, empathy in reviews thesis, craft and in life. Greg Sestero and Tom Bissell on life inside “The Room,” the greatest bad movie ever made. Get Harper's in print, instant digital access our 167-year archive—all for $45.99. Will the 9/11 case finally go to trial? A month after Donald Trump took office, an activist named Lana Lokteff delivered a speech calling on women to join the political resistance. “Be loud,” Lokteff said in a crisp, assertive voice. “Our enemies have become so arrogant that they count on our silence.”

Lokteff, who is in her late thirties, addressed an audience of a few hundred people seated in a room with beige walls, drab lighting, and dark-red curtains. The location, a building in the historic Sodermalm neighborhood of Stockholm, Sweden, had been secured only the i have, previous night, after several other venues had refused to host the reviews, event, billed as an “ideas” conference. Lokteff wore a white blouse and a crocheted black shawl over her trim figure, with a microphone headset fitted over her long blond hair. In addition to the attendees seated before her, she spoke to viewers watching a livestream. “When women get involved,” she declared, “a movement becomes a serious threat.” T here were no civilian cars on the streets of Mosul, Iraq, last December, when the veteran war photographer Don McCullin and I hitched a ride in an Iraqi Army pickup. Essay Pesticides! A few children smiled and thesis flashed V signs at english, us, but the adults’ stares betrayed hostility or, at best, caution. If Islamic State fighters returned, anyone seen consorting with the reviews thesis, army would be punished. The soldiers took us to an abandoned house in Hay Tahrir (“Liberation Quarter”), a working-class neighborhood in the northeast.

Islamic State fighters had only recently been expelled from the and savers, area. A blanket was tacked up over the doorway, and daylight came in reviews thesis, through the mortar holes in the walls. Spenders And Savers Essay! We dropped onto the dirty floor, folding our legs bedouin-style. The soldiers offered us tea, which had been brewing on a gas burner. The Iraqis asked McCullin how old he was. Reviews Thesis! Eighty-one, he said. We Start An Essay! Did he have children? Four boys and reviews a girl. One soldier asked permission to marry his daughter.

McCullin told him he couldn’t afford the dowry. After more banter, the soldiers agreed to let us stay the night and go with them to the front in the morning. The bright-green hulk of our John Deere combine harvester crept across the field of a dream essay soybeans. It was late in the day, early October, the sun low. Reviews! A cloud of hulls and chaff spewed from the back of the combine, then swirled up around us and blazed in the glow. Sealed in a dream analysis, the dustless quiet of the cab, Rick Hammond steadied the wheel with one hand and punched coordinates into a touchscreen computer with the other. The reel of the harvester head spun steadily below us like the paddle wheel of a river steamer, standing up stalks so that the toothed blades could cut a dozen rows at a go. The feed auger corkscrewed the cut plants into the mouth of the combine, where a throbbing set of threshers splintered the dry pods, collecting the oily seeds inside and sending them spiraling up to the grain tank behind Rick’s chair.

Harvested beans ticked against the back window like a light summer hail. The only other sounds were the Pong-like beeps from the computer. Average cost of reviews hospitalizing a gunshot-wound victim in the United States: Wendy Max and use of pesticides Dorothy P. Thesis! Rice, Institute for essay pesticides Health and Aging (San Francisco) A 2,700-year-old marijuana stash discovered in the Gobi Desert was judged to be of high quality. Weeks after a Category 4 hurricane made landfall in Puerto Rico, it was reported that 95 percent of residents on the island were without power, 35 percent of grocery stores were closed, 50 percent of roads needed to be cleared of debris, 86 percent of cellphone towers were not functioning, and 25 percent of shipping ports were closed. Subscribe to the Weekly Review newsletter.

Don’t worry, we won’t sell your email address! Gun owners have long been the hypochondriacs of American politics. Over the past twenty years, the gun-rights movement has won just about every battle it has fought; states have passed at least a hundred laws loosening gun restrictions since President Obama took office. Yet the National Rifle Association has continued to insist that government confiscation of privately owned firearms is nigh. The NRA’s alarmism helped maintain an active membership, but the strategy was risky: sooner or later, gun guys might have realized that they’d been had. Reviews Thesis! Then came the shootings at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, and at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, followed swiftly by the nightmare the NRA had been promising for decades: a dedicated push at every level of government for how to heading new gun laws. Thesis! The gun-rights movement was now that most insufferable of species: a hypochondriac taken suddenly, seriously ill.

2017 Harper’s Magazine Foundation. Gothic Thesis! October 2017 cover illustration by John Ritter.