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Tips for writing a personal statement for pa school

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Le traitement litteraire du conte africain : deux exemples chez Bernard Dadie et Birago Diop. 1 Parmi les tres nombreux types de relation que la culture orale africaine a pu entretenir avec la production ecrite, notamment la fixation des ?uvres qu’elle execute oralement en des livres de langues africaines comme europeennes, il est un cas sur lequel nous aimerions nous arreter un instant dans ce volume. A Personal School! C’est celui de la transposition en francais ecrit, par un ecrivain reconnu et ayant des pretentions litteraires, d’?uvres orales dites originellement dans une langue africaine. Essay About Academic Goals! Dans l’histoire litteraire de l’Afrique francophone, une telle pratique a surtout concerne deux genres : d’une part, l’epopee (par exemple, celle de Soundjata librement adaptee pour l’ecrit respectivement par Djibril Tamsir Niane et par Camara Laye1), d’autre part, le conte, c’est-a-dire deux genres essentiellement narratifs. Tips For Writing A Personal Statement School! Il est bien entendu que dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’operation dont nous parlons ne consiste pas en une traduction, fut elle enjolivee.

Il s’agit bien plutot d’une veritable creation d’auteur a partir de la connaissance de classiques que cet auteur a de sa propre culture et qu’il recompose librement d’apres son souvenir. Thesis Automotive Industry! Il est interessant, a la lumiere des acquis de la narratologie des quarante dernieres annees, depuis au moins Genette et le fameux n° 8 de Communications sur l’analyse structurale du recit en 1966, de voir ce qui, au cours de ce processus de transposition, evolue dans l’appareil narratologique en termes de catalyses, de fonctions indicielles relatives au decor ou a la psychologie des personnages. 2 Compte tenu des dimensions limitees de la presente communication, nous avons choisi de ne nous interesser ici qu’au cas du conte, c’est-a-dire a un genre de recit bref a propos duquel il est plus facile de proposer une analyse en un volume reduit. A Personal Statement School! Parmi les exemples relativement nombreux qui pouvaient s’offrir a nous, nous avons choisi de retenir deux contes extraits de deux recueils tres connus et toujours disponibles en librairie : il s’agit de « Le b?uf de l’araignee » dans Le pagne noir (Presence Africaine, 1955), de l’ecrivain ivoirien Bernard Dadie et de « Les mamelles » dans Les contes d’Amadou Koumba (Presence Africaine, 1961) de l’ecrivain senegalais Birago Diop. Essay Wikileaks! Nous allons confronter la version ecrite en francais de ces deux contes, connus dans la culture traditionnelle de chacun des deux auteurs, avec une de leurs versions orales, recueillie par des chercheurs et publiee chacune dans un recueil de contes d’orientation plus ethno-folkloriste (on trouvera ces versions en annexe). 3 Avant d’aborder l’analyse comparee des versions de chacun de ces deux contes, il convient de resituer la pratique de la transposition litteraire ecrite et en francais des contes oraux africains dans un certain contexte socio-litteraire. For Writing For Pa! Les deux recueils concernes datent des annees cinquante/soixante et de fait, c’est a cette epoque, c’est-a-dire en pleine periode de triomphe du mouvement de la « Negritude » que cette pratique s’epanouit. Thesis 182! Il s’agit pour beaucoup d’ecrivains et d’intellectuels africains (J.

Malonga, J. Tips For Writing A Personal Statement For Pa School! Brahim Seid, Boubou Hama, etc.) de faire, par le moyen d’une langue de large diffusion, la promotion exogene de la culture orale traditionnelle en Afrique, a partir de leurs repertoires ethniques, a une epoque ou l’ignorance et l’arrogance de l’Occident pouvait encore donner a croire qu’une telle culture n’existait qu’a peine ou que de telles pratiques ne pouvaient etre qualifiees de « culturelles » que par indulgence condescendante. Essay About Goals! Il est, de ce point de vue, assez significatif de constater que ce type de transposition litteraire des contes oraux sous forme de recueils s’est assez vite eteint et n’a guere survecu au mythe de la « Negritude ». A Personal School! C’est donc sans oublier un tel contexte ideologique que nous allons examiner nos deux recueils, puis entreprendre la comparaison des deux versions des contes retenus. 4 Le recueil de Dadie s’intitule Le pagne noir , titre qui est aussi celui d’un conte du volume (le deuxieme), comme il est d’usage courant dans ce type d’ouvrage. Essay Wikileaks! Cela dit, le choix de ce titre pour l’ensemble du recueil est significatif. Tips For Writing For Pa! Le pagne est, avec le boubou, un vetement emblematique du continent africain tel qu’il est vu par l’Occident, comme le sari peut par exemple l’etre pour l’Inde. Thesis 182! Sa qualite meme d’objet textile renvoie en outre par metaphore a l’idee de texte – on tips for writing statement school sait qu’il s’agit de la meme etymologie – d’autant qu’il existe aussi en plusieurs cultures locales des analogies symboliques entre le deroulement de la parole et le tissage. Walt Essay! Ce n’est d’ailleurs sans doute pas par hasard si de son cote Birago Diop, dans sa preface, a recours lui aussi a la metaphore textile, qu’il file justement avec dexterite : Dans la trame solide de ses contes et de ses sentences, me servant de ses lices sans bavures, j’ai voulu, tisserand malhabile, avec une navette hesitante, confectionner quelques bandes pour coudre un pagne (souligne par nous) sur lequel grand-mere si elle revenait, aurait retrouve le coton qu’elle fila la premiere ; et ou Amadou Koumba reconnaitra, beaucoup moins vifs sans doute, les coloris des belles etoffes qu’il tissa pour moi naguere. 5 Quant a l’adjectif « noir » du titre de Dadie, il renvoie implicitement a l’ensemble du continent subsaharien suggere comme etant un ensemble culturellement homogene : le monde noir. For Writing For Pa! Il s’agit bien entendu d’un mythe, meme si le conte est un genre qui voyage beaucoup et dont on essay wikileaks retrouve souvent les types et les motifs d’une societe a une autre.

Alors que precisement le repertoire de culture orale a un tres fort ancrage ethnique, celui-ci se trouve gomme dans le titre. Tips For Pa School! Et, dans la mesure ou il n’y a pas de preface chez Dadie, rien n’indique quelle est la source culturelle precise de ces contes qui sont presentes au lecteur. Writing A Biology! Il faut attendre la quatrieme de couverture pour induire qu’il s’agit d’un repertoire baoule : Avec evidence, ces textes manifestent la rencontre heureuse d’un ecrivain avec son monde, cette Afrique du pays Baoule (sic) recreee a travers le merveilleux de la fable […] 6 Une recherche ethnolinguistique un peu serieuse permet pourtant d’attester qu’il s’agit bien la d’un repertoire typiquement agni-baoule, mais cet aspect est en l’occurrence occulte au profit d’une pretendue universalite continentale : l’Afrique noire. 7 La mise en page de la couverture du recueil de Birago Diop est elle aussi interessante par rapport a la visee de l’ouvrage. Tips A Personal! Sur un dessin colorie representant des habitations villageoises africaines (toits coniques en chaume) et des animaux « anthropomorphises », le texte se presente ainsi : en haut de page, la mention « Les contes d’Amadou Koumba » sur deux lignes, le nom d’Amadou Koumba se trouvant sur la deuxieme ligne ecrit en gros caracteres et en rouge. Walt Whitman! En bas de page, dans la meme couleur mais en caracteres plus petits et sans majuscules, figure la mention de l’auteur du recueil : birago diop. For Writing For Pa School! Du point de vue semiotique, une telle politique n’est pas innocente. Thesis 182! Lorsque le lecteur apprend dans la preface qu’Amadou Koumba est un « griot », c’est-a-dire un artiste de la parole, sorte de pendant symbolique de l’ecrivain dans la culture ecrite, et que c’est lui qui, apres sa grand’mere, a raconte a l’auteur les contes qui figurent dans le recueil, on for writing comprend mieux la relation entre les deux noms, de meme couleur qui figurent sur la couverture.

En haut, en gros caracteres et avec des majuscules, Amadou Koumba, en bas, en lettres plus petites et sans majuscules, birago diop, qui apparait ainsi comme le modeste disciple du premier. Master Industry! Toujours est-il que, par ce biais, les contes ainsi presentes se trouvent marques d’une double authentification auctorale. 8 Or, tout chercheur ayant quelque peu travaille sur les litteratures orales africaines sait bien que, meme si un griot, l’artiste des grandes societes ouest-africaines, peut affectionner de dire des contes, c’est rarement sa fonction premiere et que le conte, a l’oppose de beaucoup d’autres genres de l’oralite, est par excellence un genre dont tout le monde peut s’approprier l’enonciation. For Writing For Pa! C’est bien d’ailleurs ce que suggere la preface de Diop qui reconnait avoir d’abord entendu ces contes chez sa grand-mere et les avoir retrouves ensuite un peu partout, dans diverses bouches, au cours de ses peregrinations de medecin veterinaire en Afrique de l’Ouest. Whitman! Il y a donc un tres fort parti pris dans la presentation de la realite culturelle telle qu’elle apparait sur la page de couverture d’un livre publie en francais, chez un editeur, Presence Africaine, dont la denomination met elle aussi en evidence l’Afrique comme continent culturellement homogene et dont le siege se trouve en outre a Paris. Tips For Writing Statement School! Dans l’optique de promotion culturelle que nous avons evoquee a cette epoque, une telle strategie semble viser d’abord un public occidental, de culture ecrite, pour qui une production verbale n’a de statut culturel veritablement valorise qu’a partir du moment ou on college academic lui reconnait un createur identifiable. Tips For Writing Statement School! C’est pourquoi ici les contes sont les contes d’Amadou Koumba avant d’etre ceux de Birago Diop. Thesis 182! Ils sont presentes comme ayant deja le label d’une sorte d’auteur reconnu dans la culture orale avant meme de passer a l’ecrit par les soins de l’ecrivain. 9 C’est dans un tel contexte qu’il convient d’analyser l’evolution subie par nos deux contes entre leur version orale originelle et leur version litteraire ecrite.

Commencons par « Le b?uf de l’araignee » de Dadie qui est a examiner en regard de la version orale de ce conte-type, recueillie en pays agni, transcrite et traduite par Marius Ano N’Guessan sous le titre « Araignee et Bosse » ( Contes agni de l’Indenie , Abidjan, Imprimerie nationale, 1976). Tips For Writing A Personal Statement School! Il est evident que la structure des deux histoires est suffisamment similaire pour qu’on puisse reconnaitre sans aucun doute un meme conte-type dont on conclusion peut donner un resume sous une forme susceptible de rendre compte des deux versions dont nous disposons : 10 Dieu a un champ plein de broussailles inextricables et decide de le faire defricher. For Pa! Personne ne se presente sauf Araignee2 a qui Dieu promet un b?uf en cas de succes. Essay Wikileaks! Araignee s’acquitte de la tache et recoit le b?uf en recompense. A Personal Statement School! Il veut manger son b?uf seul, refusant de le partager meme avec une mouche. Writing Lab Report Conclusion! Pour parvenir a ses fins, il s’enfonce dans la brousse et defeque regulierement jusqu’a ce que plus aucune mouche ne vienne se poser sur ses crottes. Tips For Writing A Personal School! C’est la qu’il abat et prepare son b?uf.

C’est alors qu’un hote surnaturel lui tombe du ciel et lui demande de le porter au lieu du festin. Master Thesis Automotive! Araignee refuse d'abord mais l’autre le rend bossu quand il cherche a fuir. For Writing School! Il l’emmene donc et se prepare ensuite a manger son b?uf mais l’autre en reclame la totalite qu’Araignee se voit contraint de lui ceder sous peine de devenir bossu. Master Thesis Industry! A la suite de quoi Araignee met au point un stratageme pour eliminer son adversaire. For Writing A Personal Statement School! En bon decepteur, il s’arrange ensuite pour qu’un tiers (le mouton chez Dadie, le toucan dans la version orale) subisse les consequences nefastes engendrees par sa vengeance. 11 Au-dela d’un tel archetype, il y a d’importantes variantes qui sont significatives du statut culturel de chacun de ces deux recits. Essay About Academic! Il serait evidemment tout a fait interessant, de ce point de vue, de s’interesser a l’evolution de la langue d’une version a l’autre mais nous ne sommes pas en mesure de le faire avec les donnees dont nous disposons. Tips For Writing A Personal For Pa School! La version originelle produite oralement est en effet deja traduite en francais et, pour fidele qu’elle soit (toutes les phrases dites dans l’enonce oral s’y trouvent), il est evident que le traducteur a adopte un style tres ecrit, assez peu conforme semble-t-il d’ailleurs a la tradition poetique du conte. Thesis Statements On Marijuana! Le debut du recit, avec l’expression « herbes urticantes » qui releve plutot du vocabulaire medical que de celui du conte, avec l’accord de concordance aboutissant a l’imparfait du subjonctif, indice d’une langue savante ou precieuse, enfin avec l’emploi du terme « Sire », trop connote dans une culture, est tres significatif a ce propos.

Nous laisserons donc de cote cet aspect pour nous interesser a la structure du recit. 12 On peut remarquer d’emblee que la version de Dadie est sensiblement plus longue. Tips For Writing A Personal School! Cette augmentation du volume tient a l’addition d’un certain nombre de motifs mais aussi a l’expansion de la fonction descriptive, presque absente de la version orale. Essay! La ou celle-ci disait simplement « Dieu avait un champ plein d’herbes urticantes ( i. Tips For Pa! e . Writing Lab Report Conclusion! de mauvaises herbes), le texte de Dadie nous decrit ce champ sur pres de deux pages, avec une accumulation d’adjectifs expressifs et de metaphores qui temoigne d’une recherche d’ecriture selon une conception – certes assez scolaire – du beau style comme on tips for writing statement for pa school pouvait encore en avoir a l’epoque : Dieu avait un champ plein de ronces et de broussailles. College Essay About Goals! Ronces et broussailles etaient si emmelees que les serpents eux-memes fuyaient le lieu. Tips For Writing A Personal For Pa School! […]Les epines dressees dans le ciel ressemblaient a de grosses pointes effilees. Master Automotive Industry! Et ronces et broussailles, sous le soleil et la pluie croissaient sans cesse […].Dans ce champ poussait un fromager peu commun, un gros, gros fromager qui devait etre l’ancetre des fromagers, tant il etait biscornu, manchot, tordu, boudineux, epineux, massif. Tips For Writing A Personal For Pa! Quelque chose d’effrayant, de hideux comme arbre. Essay Wikileaks! Les oiseaux sur ce champ jamais ne se posaient. Tips A Personal Statement! Le soleil meme glissait tandis que la brise le contournait (p. Conclusion! 51).

13 De meme, la recherche de quelqu’un qui veuille bien se charger de la tache proposee, qui tient en une phrase dans « Araignee et Bosse », s’etale sur pres d’une page (54-55) chez Dadie. Tips Statement! Plus loin, la rencontre entre Dieu et Araignee (7 lignes dans « Araignee et Bosse », 2 pages dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee »), puis le defrichage (2 lignes contre 2 pages) sont egalement beaucoup plus developpees dans la version « litteraire » qui, en outre, multiplie les indications psychologiques et les modalites indicielles dans les comportements des personnages : chez Dadie, Kacou Ananze (l’araignee) cogne avec force et furie (p.57), l’enfant de Dieu pleure (p.58), etc. Master! Alors que la version orale, sobre dans le decor comme dans la psychologie, ne connait essentiellement que des « noyaux », pour reprendre la terminologie de Barthes, la version litteraire multiplie, sous forme de catalyses, les digressions qui ne sont nullement indispensables a l’economie de l’intrigue comme, entre autres cette conversation entre Araignee et Dieu sur la condition humaine (p. Tips A Personal Statement! 55). 14 On va retrouver exactement le meme phenomene entre « Les coepouses bossues », conte wolof recueilli par Momar Sall et publie dans Contes et mythes du Senegal (CILF/EDICEF, 1986) et « Les mamelles », texte tire des Contes d’Amadou Koumba de Birago Diop. Thesis 182! Le conte populaire oral fait moins de deux pages la ou la version de l’ecrivain en fait dix. Tips A Personal Statement For Pa! La non plus, pas de doute cependant qu’il s’agit bien du meme conte-type dont un resume commun peut etre fait aussi facilement que dans le cas precedent : 15 Deux coepouses sont bossues. Essay Wikileaks! L’une d’elle tombe par hasard sur des genies a la danse desquels elle s’associe, a la suite de quoi ils lui prennent sa bosse. Tips For Writing School! La seconde, instruite par la premiere, veut faire pareil, mais loin de lui retirer sa bosse, les genies lui ajoutent celle laissee par sa coepouse la fois precedente. 16 Dans la version litteraire, les indications physiques et psychologiques notamment, presque absentes de la version orale, sont tres developpees pour caracteriser les heroines du recit ; la mauvaise : Envieuse, Khary, la premiere femme de Momar l’etait.

Elle aurait pu remplir dix calebasses de sa jalousie et les jeter dans un puits, il lui en serait reste encore dix fois dix outres au fond de son c?ur noir comme du charbon. Essay Wikileaks! Il est vrai que Khary n’avait peut-etre pas de grandes raisons a etre tres, tres contente de son sort. Tips For Writing Statement For Pa School! En effet Khary etait bossue. Master Thesis Automotive! Oh ! Une toute petite bosse de rien du tout qu’une camisole bien empesee ou un boubou ample aux larges plis pouvait aisement cacher. Tips A Personal Statement! Mais Khary croyait que tous les yeux du monde etaient fixes sur sa bosse (p.

33). 17 comme la bonne : Cependant Koumba etait bossue elle aussi, mais sa bosse depassait vraiment les mesures d’une honnete bosse. Poems! On eut dit, lorsqu’elle tournait le dos, un canari de teinturiere qui semblait porter directement le foulard et la calebasse poses sur sa tete. Tips A Personal For Pa School! Koumba, malgre sa bosse, etait gaie, douce et aimable. Essay Wikileaks! Quand on tips a personal statement for pa se moquait de la petite Koumba-Khoughe du temps ou elle jouait, buste nu, en lui demandant de preter un instant le bebe qu’elle avait sur le dos, elle repondait en riant plus fort que les autres : « Ca m’etonnerait qu’il vienne avec toi, il ne veut meme pas descendre pour teter. Essay Academic Goals! » Au contact des grandes personnes plus tard, Koumba qui les savait moins moqueuses peut-etre que les enfants, mais plus mechantes, n’avait pas change de caractere. Tips A Personal Statement School! Dans la demeure de son epoux elle restait la meme (p. Statements! 35). 18 Ces exemples montrent bien comment le recit proprement dit est interrompu par ces longues digressions descriptives dont nous n’avons donne qu’un abrege et qui nous font entrer avec l’imparfait dans une epaisseur temporelle qui est plus le fait de la narration romanesque que de celle du conte qui, en principe, ne sort que rarement et brievement du temps du recit. Statement School! On remarquera en outre que les personnages qui etaient anonymes dans le conte d’origine orale ont tous recu des noms dans la version de Birago Diop, trait qui lui aussi caracterise plutot un recit de type romanesque. 19 Outre ces phenomenes d’expansion indicielle, dans « Les mamelles », le recit se trouve egalement interrompu par des considerations generales, selon l’opposition desormais classique entre discours et recit, et qui, linguistiquement parlant, sont reperables par le present gnomique comme temps principal. Walt Whitman Essay! Ces parentheses discursives, generalement inconnues des contes oraux, donnent au texte de Diop une sorte de dimension philosophique par la portee generale de ce qui est avance : Lorsqu’il s’agit d’epouses, deux n’est point un bon compte.

Pour qui veut s’eviter souvent querelles, cris, reproches et allusions malveillantes, il faut trois femmes ou une seule et non pas deux. Tips For Writing A Personal Statement School! Deux femmes dans une meme maison ont toujours avec elles une troisieme compagne qui non seulement n’est bonne a rien, mais encore se trouve etre la pire des mauvaises conseilleres. Master Thesis Industry! Cette compagne, c’est l’Envie a la voix aigre et acide comme du jus de tamarin (p.33 ). 20 On retrouvera de meme plus loin (p.36) de longues considerations sur les vertus et les dangers du tamarinier qui nous font sortir completement de l’histoire et qui ne trouvent leur justification que parce que, dans l’intrigue, c’est aupres d’un tamarinier que Koumba recevra d’une vieille femme-genie la revelation de ce qu’elle doit faire pour perdre sa bosse. 21 « Les mamelles » revelent aussi un autre procede qui est celui de l’enchassement du recit, en l’occurrence le conte, dans un contexte enonciatif plus vaste qui renvoie a d’autres lieux et qui justifie la convocation de ce conte particulier. Tips For Writing A Personal School! Le premier de ces lieux est la France en hiver d’ou le narrateur est cense parler, alors qu’il est plein de nostalgie. Essay Wikileaks! Le fait que ce soit dans un tel contexte affectif que remontent a lui les contes de son pays est une facon de mettre en evidence la puissance emotionnelle de cette culture orale et son efficacite. For Pa School! Dans cette evocation on walt retrouvera dans l’ecriture, avec l’abondance des adjectifs et le recours aux images, la meme recherche de « beau style » que nous avions deja notee chez Dadie, indice probable, pour l’auteur, du parler litteraire : Quand la memoire va ramasser du bois mort, elle rapporte le fagot qu’il lui plait…3 L’horizon bouche m’encercle les yeux.

Les verts de l’ete et les roux de l’automne en alles, je cherche les vastes etendues de la savane et ne trouve que les monts depouilles, sombres comme de vieux geants abattus que la neige refuse d’ensevelir parce qu’ils furent sans doute des mecreants… Mauvais tisserand, l’hiver n’arrive pas a egrener ni a carder son coton ; il ne file et tisse qu’une pluie molle. Tips For Writing Statement! Gris, le ciel est froid, pale, le soleil grelotte ; alors, pres de la cheminee, je rechauffe mes membres gourds… Le feu du bois qu’on a soi-meme abattu et debite semble plus chaud qu’aucun autre feu…Chevauchant les flammes qui scintillent, mes pensees vont une a une sur les sentiers qui bordent et envahissent les souvenirs (p. Walt Poems Essay! 31). 22 Alors donc que, dans ce premier lieu, il regarde les flammes de la cheminee, va surgir un souvenir. Tips For Writing Statement For Pa! Le narrateur se rappelle un voyage en bateau tandis qu’il revient au Senegal. College Essay Academic Goals! Sur ce bateau, il rencontre une Francaise qui fait la moue en apercevant les « Mamelles », deux petites montagnes de la pointe des Amaldies, ainsi baptisees parce qu’elles ressemblent a des tetons emergeant de l’eau. Statement For Pa School! C’est ce souvenir qui appelle le conte comme le lecteur le comprendra retrospectivement. Thesis 182! En effet, chez Birago Diop, ce recit a une valeur etiologique, puisqu’il est cense expliquer l’origine de ces deux minuscules montagnes : elles seraient l’emergence des deux bosses de la coepouse depitee qui s’est jetee de honte dans la mer. A Personal School! Ce procede d’emboitement successif qui fut tres en vogue au XVIIIe et au XIXe siecle (voir, entre autres, Maupassant) est encore un indice typique de litterarite, totalement ignore du conte populaire et qui, en l’occurrence, permet en outre a Birago Diop de dedier son conte a cette Francaise qui devient ici en quelque sorte la metonymie de son lectorat occidental : Ma memoire, ce soir au coin du feu, attache dans le meme bout de liane mes petites montagnes, les epouses de Momar et la timide et blonde Violette pour qui je rapporte, en reponse, tardive peut-etre, a son ironique question, ceci que m’a conte Amadou Koumba (p.

33). 23 Mais precisement, on essay wikileaks voit bien, chez Dadie comme chez Diop, que beaucoup de procedes stylistiques (syntaxe recherchee, adjectifs, metaphores…) ou rhetoriques (longues descriptions du decor, du physique et de la psychologie des personnages, alternance du recit et du discours, procedes d’emboitement) correspondent a des strategies d’ecriture consistant a habiller le conte oral africain selon des normes litteraires de la scripturalite qui le rendent plus consommable et qui le valorisent aux yeux d’un lectorat occidental cense etre habitue a certaines conventions propres a la litterature romanesque. 24 Cette evolution, impliquee par le passage de l’oral a l’ecrit litteraire ne consiste d’ailleurs pas seulement a multiplier les indices de litterarite romanesque, dans le style comme dans la morphologie narrative, mais elle modifie aussi la fonction culturelle de ces contes, changeant assez radicalement ce qu’on appelle generalement leur « morale ». Tips For Writing A Personal Statement! Si, par exemple, on master thesis industry revient sur le conte-type mettant en scene Araignee et Bosse, on tips a personal statement for pa school peut s’arreter sur plusieurs differences notables qui en changent la perspective. 25 Dans la version populaire orale, Dieu n’a pas mis de condition particuliere au defrichage de son champ et Araignee ne triche pas en accomplissant sa tache. Automotive Industry! Il semble donc avoir legitimement merite le b?uf promis.

En revanche, dans la version de Dadie, Dieu met une condition a l’abattage de l’arbre monstRueux. Tips For Writing Statement For Pa School! Il ne faut pas l’abattre avec une hache ni un quelconque objet tranchant, mais avec « ca » que le lecteur, compte tenu des suggestions contextuelles appuyees, n’a aucun mal a identifier comme etant le sexe masculin. Writing A Biology Lab Report! Le motif de l’arbre que le heros doit abattre avec son penis existe bien en de nombreux repertoires de contes africains, mais il est en principe associe a un autre conte-type, celui de la quete d’une epouse, et c’est une epreuve proposee par le beau-pere aux pretendants. Tips For Writing A Personal School! On comprend d’ailleurs mieux dans ce contexte le sens d’une telle exigence puisque l’epreuve apparait alors comme un moyen de garantir la virilite du futur epoux. Statements! En outre, cette condition est generalement formulee de facon beaucoup plus directe et crue : le texte du conte dit tout simplement et sans ambage que le pretendant doit abattre l’arbre avec sa verge. Tips For Writing Statement School! Les raffinements et les jeux euphemiques de Dadie dans le recit qu’il a lui-meme redige, indices d’un souci de bienseance, sont donc typiquement lies a l’idee qu’il se fait d’une certaine culture occidentale ou les themes galants sont a l’occasion apprecies dans la bonne litterature a condition d’etre plaisamment allusifs. Whitman! Cette formulation euphemique, dans le cadre d’une sorte de jeu subtil avec le lecteur, a peut-etre aussi pour fonction de contribuer a contredire le stereotype colonial selon lequel le negre, souvent associe a une sexualite primaire et grossiere, est incapable de telles finesses. 26 Dadie semble donc avoir amalgame ici des elements de deux contes-types pour n’en faire qu’un seul. Tips A Personal Statement School! Il a d’ailleurs emprunte d’autres motifs classiques de contes ouest-africains comme celui du decepteur qui, pour accomplir un mefait ou une tricherie, envoie sa dupe naive puiser de l’eau dans une corbeille tressee, tache impossible qui permet de l’eloigner pour un bon moment et de donner tout son temps au decepteur pour arranger sa duperie. Poems! Il n’est certes pas impossible que Dadie ait lui-meme entendu une version orale de ce conte-type qui presentait de tels elements, dans la mesure ou l’oralite est soumise a la variabilite et ou il ne faudrait pas commettre l’erreur grossiere de considerer la version orale dont nous disposons comme un modele fige. For Writing School! Dans toutes les cultures, le conte est un « meccano », selon l’expression de Georges Jean, et les contes-types peuvent s’accommoder de plusieurs variantes, dont il n’est pas possible de dire qu’une est plus legitime que l’autre.

Cependant, celui qui connait un peu le repertoire des contes ouest-africains et en particulier agni, ne peut pas ne pas avoir le sentiment d’une tendance, dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee », a proposer un conte enrichi d’elements de plusieurs autres, afin de presenter un texte plus dense, offrant en quelque sorte une synthese culturelle. 27 En outre, cette addition d’une condition mise par Dieu au defrichage du champ modifie le sens de la mesaventure vecue ensuite par Araignee. Thesis Statements! Dans la version populaire orale, si Araignee a acquis son b?uf de facon legitime, sa punition ne peut venir que de son comportement posterieur a cette acquisition. Tips For Pa! Il ne veut partager son b?uf avec quiconque, pas meme avec une mouche. Essay! Et c’est cet egoisme foncier, symptomatique d’une ideologie individualiste contraire aux valeurs communautaires de partage et de solidarite pronees dans la societe agni-baoule comme en beaucoup de societes africaines, qui semble la cause du chatiment transcendant (Bosse tombe d’en haut) qu’il recoit, sous forme de la privation du festin tant convoite. Tips For Writing For Pa School! Et, bien sur, comme Araignee est le decepteur dans ce repertoire de contes, il se venge a son tour de celui qui l’a depouille de son b?uf et il fait subir a un autre les consequences de son mefait. 28 Une telle lecture est toujours possible dans la version de Dadie ou Ananze (Araignee) manifeste le meme comportement individualiste, toutefois elle est concurrencee par une autre interpretation qui relativise la premiere et la fait passer au second plan. College About! Ananze a triche pour obtenir son b?uf, puisque, au lieu de l’abattre avec son sexe comme le voulait la prescription de Dieu, il l’a tranche a la hache, mystifiant l’enfant de Dieu delegue pour le surveiller. Statement For Pa! S’il est donc par la suite prive de sa recompense, c’est aussi a cause de la tricherie et de la tricherie a l’egard de Dieu, ce qui motive singulierement le caractere transcendant du chatiment dont le texte nous precise la encore qu’il « tomba du ciel » (p.60) et qu’il est bien interprete par le heros comme un envoi de Dieu. Writing Conclusion! Une telle lecture est encore favorisee par le chant qu’entonne Ananze apres s’etre vu remettre le b?uf : Dieu, dieu, mais on for writing a personal statement for pa school peut le tromper. Il suffit d’avoir du cran. Thesis 182! […] (p.59).

29 La lecon du conte populaire, liee a une morale ethnique et peut-etre plus largement africaine, pronant des valeurs de solidarite communautaire et condamnant l’individualisme, s’elargit donc, dans la version litteraire en francais, a une morale plus universelle sur l’honnetete (« Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais ») et prend une coloration nettement metaphysique puisqu’il est plus precisement question de bonne foi vis a vis de la transcendance. Tips A Personal Statement For Pa! Le fait que, dans cette version, l’agent du chatiment soit justement la Mort (avec une majuscule) au lieu de simplement « Bosse » comme dans la variante d’origine orale, renforce evidemment cette lecture metaphysique du conte. On Marijuana! Le texte de Dadie voit donc s’accentuer, pour un lectorat plus vaste, sa portee philosophique generale. 30 Le conte des deux coepouses offre la meme possibilite de glissement interpretatif, avec, semble-t-il, les memes objectifs. For Writing Statement For Pa! Dans la version d’origine orale, il n’est pas question d’une bonne et d’une mauvaise coepouse et rien n’est dit sur leurs qualites morales respectives. Essay! Si l’une reussit sa quete implicite en perdant sa bosse et si l’autre echoue en se voyant ajouter a la sienne la bosse de la premiere, ce ne peut donc en aucun cas etre interprete comme une recompense de la bonte de la premiere et une sanction de la mechancete de la seconde. Tips School! La seule chose qui differe entre les deux, c’est leur comportement lorsqu’elles participent a la danse des genies.

La premiere reprend tres scrupuleusement les paroles de leur chant, qui d’ailleurs consiste essentiellement a repeter en wolof le mot de « mardi » (talaata, terme emprunte a l’arabe), jour de leur reunion, comme l’indiquent les propos de la premiere coepouse lorsqu’elle revele son secret a la seconde : « Si tu te rends la nuit du mardi du cote des toilettes, tu trouveras les djinns en train de jouer dans une vaste cour. About Goals! ». For Writing Statement For Pa School! La seconde, en revanche, prolonge a sa fantaisie le chant en enumerant les autres jours de la semaine : mercredi, jeudi, vendredi (Allarba, Alxames, Aljuma). Thesis 182! Et le contexte montre de facon tres explicite que c’est cette invention personnelle de la femme qui conduit les genies a lui ajouter a sa bosse celle de sa coepouse, abandonnee a la seance precedente : Les djinns affoles s’interrogerent : « Qui a l’audace d’allonger notre chanson sans notre autorisation ? » Les autres ponctuaient : « C’est cette etrangere, c’est cette etrangere ; nous nous devons donc de lui doubler sa bosse. Tips For Writing A Personal School! » Ils prirent la bosse de la coepouse qu’ils collerent a la sienne en lui disant : « Deguerpis ! Tu n’as rien a ajouter a notre chanson sans notre autorisation ! » 31 On comprend que nous sommes en presence d’un conte initiatique indiquant que l’initie doit se conformer scrupuleusement aux indications de ses maitres initiateurs. Thesis Statements On Marijuana! La premiere reussit son initiation parce qu’elle agit ainsi, tandis que la seconde echoue du fait qu’elle n’a pas une attitude suffisamment respectueuse ni docile. Statement For Pa School! Pas de lecon ici autre qu’initiatique. 32 En faisant de ses deux coepouses une bonne et une mauvaise, Birago Diop modifie considerablement la signification du conte, d’autant que, dans la rencontre entre Koumba et la vieille femme sous le tamarinier (p. Thesis Statements On Marijuana! 37), le texte insiste par prolepse sur le fait que ce qui va arriver a Koumba est une recompense meritee de sa grande bonte : Koumba, reprit la vieille femme, je connais ton bon coeur et ton grand merite depuis que tu reconnais ta droite de ta gauche.

Je veux te rendre un grand service car je t’en sais digne. For Writing Statement For Pa School! Vendredi, a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew, les filles-genies danseront. Thesis! Tu iras sur la colline lorsque la terre sera froide. For Writing Statement For Pa! Quand le tam-tam battra son plein, quand le cercle sera bien anime, quand sans arret une danseuse remplacera une autre danseuse, tu t’approcheras et tu diras a la fille-genie qui sera a cote de toi : -Tiens, prends-moi l’enfant que j’ai sur le dos, c’est mon tour de danser. 33 Quant a Khary, la mechante coepouse, lorsqu’elle se rend a son tour a la danse des filles-genies, elle ne semble pas commettre d’erreur particuliere dans le deroulement du rite. Essay Wikileaks! Par consequent, si elle se voit affublee de la deuxieme bosse, cela ne peut apparaitre que comme une punition transcendante de sa mechancete intrinseque, qui la conduit d’ailleurs finalement a la mort, de rage, episode qui ne se retrouve pas dans la version orale. Tips! Le conte est donc passe d’une lecon essentiellement initiatique a une morale plus ou moins universelle qui veut que les bons soient recompenses et les mechants punis, ce qui gomme l’identite wolof et plus largement africaine du conte au profit de valeurs beaucoup plus familieres au lectorat occidental. 34 A propos de cet episode de la rencontre avec les genies, on statements on marijuana notera aussi, chez Diop, le meme souci de bienseance et d’effacement du trivial au profit du poetique. Tips A Personal Statement For Pa! Alors que dans la version populaire elle a lieu a cote des toilettes4, dans le conte de Diop, elle se deroule « a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew (…), lorsque la terre (est) froide ». 35 En outre, dans la version wolof authentique, la presence des deux coepouses est une donnee de depart du conte : « Il y avait une fois deux coepouses bossues », precision qui ne requiert aucun besoin de justification dans la societe agni-baoule ou la polygamie est une pratique normale et courante.

36 En revanche Birago Diop se sent oblige, dans son conte ecrit directement en francais, de presenter les choses un peu differemment. Thesis 182! Dans « Les mamelles », si Momar prend une seconde epouse, c’est parce qu’il est en quelque sorte contraint a le faire : sa premiere femme, Khary est absolument epouvantable et ne remplit pas son office d’epouse. Statement For Pa! Il a somme toute une « excuse » pour prendre une seconde femme et, en creux, le lecteur est invite a comprendre que si Khary n’avait pas ete si mauvaise, jamais il n’aurait eu l’idee de prendre Koumba : Las de travailler tout le jour et de ne prendre que le soir un repas chaud, Momar s’etait decide (souligne par nous) a prendre une deuxieme femme et il avait epouse Koumba. 37 Ce souci, dans la version litteraire, d’excuser la polygamie, en lui trouvant une justification circonstancielle, temoigne encore de la conscience de l’auteur d’avoir a s’adresser – au moins partiellement – a un lectorat qui voit dans la polygamie une pratique de « sauvage » ou en tout cas une pratique culturellement inferieure. 38 Cette breve analyse de nos deux contes aura donc montre qu’en passant de la culture orale de leur terroir a une production ecrite en francais, dans le contexte d’une certaine epoque, ils ont subi une transformation profonde qui, derriere une apparente fidelite aux grandes lignes de l’histoire, est presque une trahison de leur personnalite originelle, tant du point de vue de la morphologie du recit que de la moralite des contes. Essay Wikileaks! Affirmer ainsi qu’il s’agit d’une trahison ne signifie nullement de notre part prononcer une condamnation de l’entreprise des deux ecrivains. For Writing A Personal! Notre propos n’est pas ici de nous poser en censeur ni de prendre parti pour louer ou condamner. Essay Wikileaks! La litterature n’a pas a s’accommoder de dogme et toute l’histoire de la creation litteraire est faite, dans l’intertextualite, de trahisons parfois geniales. Tips For Writing A Personal For Pa! Il s’agit seulement de constater que ces contes « litteraires », s’ils sont bien des ?uvres africaines – il n’y a aucune raison de leur denier cette qualite -, sont des produits d’epoque (les annees soixante) marques par le mouvement de la negritude et le souci de promotion exogene de la culture africaine dont les intellectuels du continent voulaient montrer l’appartenance au patrimoine culturel universel. Academic Goals! Pour ce faire, les auteurs les presentaient d’abord comme partageant les memes canons et les memes valeurs que celles qui avaient cours en Occident. Tips Statement For Pa! De telles productions, apres le traitement qu’elles ont subi, n’ont evidemment plus grand chose a voir avec les contes oraux qui en ont ete la source.

CAMARA Laye (1978), Le maitre de la parole, Kouma Lafolo Kouma, Plon. DADIE Bernard (1955), Le pagne noir. KOUMBA Amadou, « Les coepouses bossues », in a biology lab report, Contes et mythes du Senegal, CILF, Fleuve et Flamme, 1991. NGUESSAN M.A., Araignee et bosse. NIANE Djibril Tamsir (1960) Soundjata ou l’epopee mandingue, Presence Africaine.

SALL Momar, Contes et mythes du Senegal, Fleuve et Flamme, EDICEF, 1991.

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Mars Facts: Life, Water and Robots on the Red Planet. Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. Befitting the red planet's bloody color, the Romans named it after their god of statement for pa school war. The Romans copied the ancient Greeks, who also named the planet after their god of war, Ares. Other civilizations also typically gave the planet names based on its color for master thesis automotive industry example, the Egyptians named it Her Desher, meaning the red one, while ancient Chinese astronomers dubbed it the fire star. The bright rust color Mars is known for is due to tips for writing statement school, iron-rich minerals in its regolith the loose dust and rock covering its surface. The soil of Earth is a kind of regolith, albeit one loaded with organic content. According to thesis 182, NASA, the iron minerals oxidize, or rust, causing the a personal statement, soil to automotive, look red. The cold, thin atmosphere means liquid water currently cannot exist on the Martian surface for any length of tips for writing school time.

This means that although this desert planet is conclusion just half the diameter of Earth, it has the same amount of dry land. The red planet is a personal statement school home to both the highest mountain and the deepest, longest valley in the solar system. Olympus Mons is roughly 17 miles (27 kilometers) high, about three times as tall as Mount Everest, while the thesis automotive, Valles Marineris system of valleys named after the tips statement, Mariner 9 probe that discovered it in 1971 can go as deep as 6 miles (10 km) and runs east-west for roughly 2,500 miles (4,000 km), about one-fifth of the distance around Mars and close to the width of Australia or the distance from Philadelphia to San Diego. Mars has the largest volcanoes in walt whitman essay the solar system, including Olympus Mons, which is about 370 miles (600 km) in diameter, wide enough to cover the entire state of New Mexico. It is a shield volcano, with slopes that rise gradually like those of Hawaiian volcanoes, and was created by eruptions of lavas that flowed for long distances before solidifying. Tips A Personal. Mars also has many other kinds of volcanic landforms, from automotive small, steep-sided cones to statement for pa, enormous plains coated in hardened lava. Some minor eruptions might still occur on the planet. Scientists think the essay about goals, Valles Marineris formed mostly by a personal school, rifting of the crust as it got stretched.

Individual canyons within the system are as much as 60 miles (100 km) wide. Writing A Biology Lab Report. They merge in the central part of the Valles Marineris in a region as much as 370 miles (600 km) wide. Large channels emerging from the ends of some canyons and layered sediments within suggest the canyons might once have been filled with liquid water. Channels, valleys, and gullies are found all over Mars, and statement, suggest that liquid water might have flowed across the planet's surface in recent times. Some channels can be 60 miles (100 km) wide and 1,200 miles (2,000 km) long. Water may still lie in cracks and pores in underground rock. Many regions of thesis Mars are flat, low-lying plains. The lowest of the northern plains are among the flattest, smoothest places in the solar system, potentially created by water that once flowed across the Martian surface. The northern hemisphere mostly lies at a lower elevation than the southern hemisphere, suggesting the crust may be thinner in the north than in the south. This difference between the tips for writing a personal statement for pa school, north and south might be due to a very large impact shortly after the birth of Mars. The number of craters on Mars varies dramatically from place to place, depending on how old the surface is.

Much of the surface of the thesis automotive industry, southern hemisphere is extremely old, and so has many craters including the planet's largest, 1,400-mile-wide (2,300 km) Hellas Planitia while that of northern hemisphere is younger and so has fewer craters. Some volcanoes have few craters, which suggests they erupted recently, with the resulting lava covering up any old craters. Some craters have unusual-looking deposits of debris around them resembling solidified mudflows, potentially indicating that impactor hit underground water or ice. Vast deposits of what appear to tips statement for pa, be finely layered stacks of water ice and dust extend from the poles to walt whitman essay, latitudes of about 80 degrees in both hemispheres. These were probably deposited by for writing a personal statement school, the atmosphere over long spans of time.

On top of much of automotive industry these layered deposits in both hemispheres are caps of water ice that remain frozen all year round. Additional seasonal caps of for writing statement frost appear in the wintertime. These are made of a biology solid carbon dioxide, also known as dry ice, which has condensed from carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, and in the deepest part of the winter, this frost can extend from the poles to latitudes as low as 45 degrees, or halfway to the equator. The dry ice layer appears to have a fluffy texture, like freshly fallen snow, according to the report in the Journal of tips a personal statement Geophysical Research-Planets. Mars is much colder than Earth, in large part due to its greater distance from the sun. The average temperature is college essay about academic about minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 60 degrees Celsius), although they can vary from minus 195 F (minus 125 C) near the poles during the winter to as much as 70 F (20 C) at midday near the equator. The carbon-dioxide-rich atmosphere of Mars is also roughly 100 times less dense than Earth's on average, but it is nevertheless thick enough to support weather, clouds and winds. The density of the atmosphere varies seasonally, as winter forces carbon dioxide to freeze out of the Martian air.

NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter found the first definitive detections of carbon-dioxide snow clouds, making Mars the only body in the solar system known to host the unusual winter weather. The red planet also causes water-ice snow to fall from the clouds. The dust storms of the a personal statement for pa school, Mars are the largest in the solar system, capable of blanketing the entire red planet and lasting for months. One theory as to why dust storms can grow so big on Mars starts with airborne dust particles absorbing sunlight, warming the Martian atmosphere in their vicinity. Warm pockets of thesis on marijuana air flow toward colder regions, generating winds. Strong winds lift more dust off the ground, which in turn heats the atmosphere, raising more wind and tips for writing a personal statement school, kicking up more dust.

The axis of Mars, like Earth's, is tilted with relation to the sun. This means that like Earth, the amount of sunlight falling on certain parts of the planet can vary widely during the year, giving Mars seasons. However, the seasons that Mars experiences are more extreme than Earth's because the whitman essay, red planet's elliptical, oval-shaped orbit around the tips a personal, sun is more elongated than that of any of the college essay about goals, other major planets. When Mars is closest to the sun, its southern hemisphere is for writing statement tilted toward the sun, giving it a short, very hot summer, while the northern hemisphere experiences a short, cold winter. When Mars is farthest from the sun, the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, giving it a long, mild summer, while the southern hemisphere experiences a long, cold winter. Atmospheric composition (by volume):

95.32 percent carbon dioxide, 2.7 percent nitrogen, 1.6 percent argon, 0.13 percent oxygen, 0.08 percent carbon monoxide, minor amounts of water, nitrogen oxide, neon, hydrogen-deuterium-oxygen, krypton, xenon. Magnetic field: Mars currently has no global magnetic field, but there are regions of its crust that can be at least 10 times more strongly magnetized than anything measured on Earth, remnants of an ancient global magnetic field. Chemical composition: Mars likely has a solid core composed of master industry iron, nickel, and sulfur. The mantle of Mars is probably similar to Earth's in that it is composed mostly of for writing school peridotite, which is master thesis automotive made up primarily of silicon, oxygen, iron and magnesium. Tips For Writing A Personal Statement For Pa. The crust is probably largely made of the volcanic rock basalt, which is essay also common in the crusts of the Earth and the moon, although some crustal rocks, especially in the northern hemisphere, may be a form of andesite, a volcanic rock that contains more silica than basalt does. Internal structure: Scientists think that on average, the Martian core is statement for pa about 1,800 and 2,400 miles in diameter (3,000 and 4,000 km), its mantle is about 900 to 1,200 miles (5,400 to 7,200 km) wide and its crust is about 30 miles (50 km) thick. Average distance from the sun : 141,633,260 miles (227,936,640 km).

By comparison: 1.524 times that of Earth. Perihelion (closest) : 128,400,000 miles (206,600,000 km). By comparison: 1.404 times that of Earth. Aphelion (farthest) : 154,900,000 miles (249,200,000 km). By comparison: 1.638 times that of Earth.

The two moons of master thesis automotive industry Mars, Phobos and tips for writing for pa school, Deimos, were discovered by thesis statements, American astronomer Asaph Hall over tips statement school, the course of a week in writing lab report 1877. Hall had almost given up his search for tips for writing statement for pa school a moon of thesis automotive Mars, but his wife, Angelina, urged him on he discovered Deimos the for pa school, next night, and Phobos six days after that. He named the writing a biology conclusion, moons after the sons of the Greek war god Ares Phobos means fear, while Deimos means rout. Both Phobos and Deimos are apparently made of carbon-rich rock mixed with ice and tips for writing a personal for pa school, are covered in dust and loose rocks. They are tiny next to Earth's moon, and are irregularly shaped, since they lack enough gravity to pull themselves into a more circular form. The widest Phobos gets is about 17 miles (27 km), and the widest Deimos gets is roughly nine miles (15 km). Both moons are pockmarked with craters from meteor impacts. The surface of Phobos also possesses an intricate pattern of grooves, which may be cracks that formed after the impact created the college academic, moon's largest crater a hole about 6 miles (10 km) wide, or nearly half the width of Phobos.

They always show the same face to for pa school, Mars, just as our moon does to walt whitman poems essay, Earth. It remains uncertain how Phobos and Deimos were born. They may have been asteroids captured by Mars' gravitational pull, or they may have been formed in orbit around Mars the for writing a personal statement for pa, same time the planet came into existence. Ultraviolet light reflected from master Phobos provides strong evidence for its capture origin, according to astronomers at the University of tips a personal statement for pa school Padova in Italy. Phobos is conclusion gradually spiraling toward Mars, drawing about 6 feet (1.8 meters) closer to the red planet each century. Within 50 million years, Phobos will either smash into a personal for pa Mars or break up and form a ring of debris around the planet. Both moons are potential targets for exploration. One NASA plan envisions bombarding Phobos with small, spiky spherical rovers called hedgehogs. The first person to watch Mars with a telescope was Galileo Galilei, and in the century after him, astronomers discovered its polar ice caps. In the 19th and 20th centuries, researchers believed they saw a network of long, straight canals on Mars, hinting at civilization, although later these often proved to be mistaken interpretations of dark regions they saw.

Robot spacecraft began observing Mars in the 1960s, with the United States launching Mariner 4 there in 1964 and Mariners 6 and whitman poems essay, 7 in 1969. Tips For Writing Statement For Pa. They revealed Mars to be a barren world, without any signs of the life or civilizations people had imagined there. In 1971, Mariner 9 orbited Mars, mapping about thesis statements on marijuana 80 percent of the planet and discovering its volcanoes and canyons. NASA's Viking 1 lander touched down onto the surface of Mars in 1976, the for writing for pa, first successful landing onto the Red Planet. It took the first close-up pictures of the thesis 182, Martian surface but found no strong evidence for school life. The next two craft to successfully reach Mars were the Mars Pathfinder, a lander, and Mars Global Surveyor, an orbiter, both launched in 1996. A small robot onboard Pathfinder named Sojourner the first wheeled rover to explore the surface of another planet ventured over the planet's surface analyzing rocks. In 2001, the United States launched the Mars Odyssey probe, which discovered vast amount of essay water ice beneath the Martian surface, mostly in the upper three feet (one meter).

It remains uncertain whether more water lies underneath, since the for writing a personal statement for pa school, probe cannot see water any deeper. In 2003, the closest Mars had passed to about academic goals, Earth in nearly 60,000 years, NASA launched two rovers, nicknamed Spirit and tips statement school, Opportunity, which explored different regions of the Martian surface, and thesis 182, both found signs that water once flowed on the planet's surface. Tips For Writing Statement For Pa School. In 2008, NASA sent another mission, Phoenix, to land in the northern plains of Mars and search for water, Two orbiters NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA's Mars Express are keeping Mars Odyssey company over the planet. Thesis Statements On Marijuana. In 2011, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission, with its rover named Mars Curiosity, began to tips for writing a personal school, investigate Martian rocks to determine the geologic processes that created them and find out more about the present and past habitability of Mars. Among its findings is the thesis 182, first meteorite on the surface of the red planet. In September 2014, India’s Mars Orbiter Mission reached the red planet, making it the tips for writing a personal school, fourth nation to successfully enter orbit around Mars.

Robots aren’t the only ones looking to buy a ticket to Mars. A workshop group of government, academic, and about, industry scientists have found that a NASA-led manned mission to Mars should be possible by a personal statement for pa, the 2030s. But NASA isn’t the only one with Martian astronaut hopefuls.. College About Goals. The Mars One colony project is looking to send private citizens on a one-way trip to the red planet. Mars could have once harbored life. For Writing. Some conjecture that life might still exist there even today.

A number of researchers have even speculated that life on Earth may have seeded Mars, or that life on Mars seeded Earth. The most public scientific claim for life on Mars came in 1996. Geologist David McKay at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston and his colleagues focused on rocks blasted off the surface of college about academic goals Mars by cosmic impacts that landed on Earth. Within they found complex organic molecules, grains of a mineral called magnetite that can form within some kinds of bacteria, and tiny structures that resembled fossilized microbes. However, these claims have proven controversial, and there is no consensus as to statement school, whether they are signs of life. Mars may have possessed oceans on its surface in the past, providing an thesis statements, environment for life to develop. Tips. Although the red planet is a cold desert today, researchers suggest that liquid water may be present underground, providing a potential refuge for any life that might still exist there. The rover Curiosity has found evidence for thesis automotive a lake that could have once supported life on the red planet, after previously establishing that the planet had the key ingredients present for tips for writing a personal school life to automotive, evolve.

Enthusiasm and excitement on Earth over the possibility of life on the red planet are revealed by the flurry of excitement that greets interesting objects spotted by orbiters and tips a personal statement school, landers. While the Face on about academic, Mars garnered attention for the past four decades after it was first spotted by Viking 1, rovers today show close-ups of objects such as a weathered Martian rock claimed to be a ‘thigh bone’ and a likely shiny rock that raised furor on the internet as a UFO light. Read about and see pictures of more than 40 missions to Mars. Follow the rover Curiosity as it makes its way across the Martian terrain. Learn more about Mars at NASA's Solar System Exploration website.

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essay on spaceship During the latter part of 1958, work being carried out on the foundations of a new office block in Knightsbridge leads to the discovery of an alien spacecraft buried deep inside the London clay where it has lain hidden for over five million years. Statement School. Although little now remains of its propulsion system or controls, the hull itself shows no signs of corrosion – in fact, it seems to be alive in some way. An attempt to writing a biology drill through the bulkhead produces unearthly sounds never heard before by the human ear. Tips For Writing School. Nigel Kneale’s script for the BBC’s television serial Quatermass and the Pit refers to a ‘wailing screech’ to which is added ‘a deep thudding vibration’ that grows in intensity, filling the essay wikileaks entire excavation site. Those within earshot are thrown into strange convulsions: bodies tense, eyes shut tight, limbs shuddering. Only when the drilling stops do the strange sounds subside . Originally screened from the end of December 1958 through the first few weeks of 1959, Quatermass and the Pit is very much an echo of its times. The third adventure to feature British rocket scientist Bernard Quatermass, it manages to speak to a growing audience of viewers already becoming uncomfortably familiar with the accelerating pace of modern change. In October 1957, the Soviet Union surprised the for writing school entire world by announcing that they had successfully launched Sputnik I, the first manmade satellite, into orbit around the Earth.

Within three months it was joined by an American satellite, Explorer I; the Space Race has now begun. Tracking their remote bleeping from its location in the Cheshire countryside is the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station with its giant Lovell Telescope, which has been studying cosmic rays since the about academic summer of 1957. The universe suddenly seems to be pulsating with an energy that had previously gone undetected: one that is so new and unfamiliar that it can still only be heard . Not surprising then that the alien spacecraft in Quatermass and the Pit should first exert its influence through the medium of unearthly sounds, or that the newly-formed BBC Radiophonic Workshop should be given the task of making them. Established, according to the official press release, to produce ‘a new sound – suggestive of tips statement for pa school emotion, sensation, mood rather than the literal moaning of writing lab report wind or the opening of a door’, the for writing a personal statement school unit has only been in operation since May 1958. Essay Wikileaks. Quatermass and the Pit is for writing consequently one of the first major television series to make a prominent feature of these ‘suggestive’ sounds. To produce them, Radiophonic Workshop cofounder Desmond Briscoe, assisted by Dick Mills, utilizes one of the writing lab report most significant developments in sound technology to emerge since the end of the Second World War: the commercial tape recorder. Magnetic tape has already played an important part in early experiments to tips a personal statement create ‘musique concrete’ through the manipulation of raw sound: most recently the composer Edgard Varese has used a whole battery of conclusion them to compose his groundbreaking Poeme electronique, currently wowing visitors to the Philips Pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World’s Fair.

A new type of music has begun to be registered upon magnetic tape: one that cannot be contained in the traditional concert hall but requires instead equally new spaces and new media to be appreciated fully . Also present at tips for writing, Expo ’58 is the Radiophonic Workshop’s other founder, Daphne Oram, sent by the BBC to take part in an international symposium on experimental music, where she encounters the works and ideas of essay wikileaks Karlheinz Stockhausen, John Cage, Luc Ferrari and tips for writing statement for pa, Pierre Schaeffer. What will be later described by Desmond Briscoe as the ‘great electronic churnings and throbbings’ that reverberate through Quatermass and the Pit are the direct result of the writing a biology lab report experimental techniques made possible by magnetic tape. “For these sounds,” he later recalls, “we used tape feed-back started with a side drum beat, and tape recorders that went into oscillation with themselves. We also connected and disconnected amplifiers to make great splats of sound. Tips A Personal For Pa School. Finally, we transferred all the sounds that we made onto discs to play in the television studio.” The process Briscoe describes here is one in which the production of sound becomes wired into itself. Electric and thesis automotive, acoustic pulses are simultaneously recorded and then played back over tips for writing statement, themselves; the resultant repetitions mutate and decay, giving the impression of eerie distortions rebounding over a measureless and artificial distance . At the same time, the electrical amplification allows feedback to be controlled not in terms of pitch or harmony, but timbre and duration. Once volume changes, so does time itself: sound becomes plastic, capable of being stretched and moulded into any shape or form required. Just as the modern office blocks going up in the UK’s major cities and the Jodrell Bank radio-telescope constitute an conclusion emerging architecture of the future, this elementary form of electronic music has become the sound of space itself: echoing and vibrating, breathing and alive.

While sustained reverberation results in the blurring of notes into statement, one sound that marks the outer limit of a cavernous space, the process of repetition suggests something vaster still. Essay Wikileaks. The more precisely something is repeated, the more closely it approximates the ultimate loneliness of an infinite echo. Like Sputnik’s repeated signal, it lays down a carefully regulated sonic grid that defines and limits human apprehension of the expanding universe. The characters in Quatermass and the Pit soon find themselves caught up in just such a grid. The ‘suggestive’ screeches and vibrations produced by the alien spacecraft with its crew of for writing statement school long-dead Martians sealed inside the about academic goals bulkhead cut through those encountered during everyday life . Even the transistor radio relaying breezy light entertainment and news bulletins to the workers at the Knightsbridge excavation soon falls silent, unable to compete with these extraterrestrial noises. Although the Radiophonic Workshop has succeeded in connecting the nation’s living rooms with outer space through the medium of for writing a personal statement for pa school electronic sound, this achievement is not enough for Daphne Oram. Frustrated by the BBC’s determination to see the new unit only as a means of manufacturing jingles and sound effects for its regular broadcasts rather than an experimental laboratory to be used by the musical avant-garde, she resigns and relocates to a deserted coast house in Kent. Essay Wikileaks. Here she starts work developing ‘Oramics’: a system of photoelectric cells capable of converting images drawn onto a personal statement 35 mm film into pure electronic tones.

The future, it appears, belongs to walt the lone pioneer as much as the large organization. It is, after all, the lone pioneer who ensures that space is never left unoccupied for very long. “Comets, I believe, are the pulsating spermatozoa of space,” wrote Desmond Leslie in for writing a personal school, 1959, “darting on their eccentric orbits seeking new ‘world eggs’ to fertilize.” Privately released on an acetate disc, Leslie’s Music of the Future contains material previously recorded for BBC radio dramas, a sci-fi movie and a London stage play. Manipulating recordings of humming tops, motor horns and plucked piano strings, Leslie creates evocative works bearing titles such as ‘Comet in Aquarius’ and ‘Asteroid Belt’, defining his work as “the arrangement of sound patterns into lab report, an intelligent, evocative and potent new musical form.” Leslie is also the well-known co-author of the bestseller Flying Saucers Have Landed. This landmark in UFO literature is perhaps best known for containing George Adamski’s account of his encounter with a visiting Venusian near the Mount Palomar Observatory in a personal for pa, California. This, however, is nothing compared with Leslie’s own enthused probing of the walt essay flying saucer myth. Like the for writing a personal for pa school author of Quatermass and the Pit, he suggests that the secrets of space travel may be found in our distant prehistory. Walt Whitman Essay. Elegantly working Theosophy in with Hinduism, perpetual motion machines with ectoplasm, and the Great Pyramid with ancient Celtic folklore, Leslie has helped to create the complete New Age package before the New Age has even dawned fully: from drive-in movies to tips for writing a personal statement for pa school album covers, pop culture iconography might be considerably the poorer without it. A licensing agreement with the Joseph Weinberger music library ensures that much of Leslie’s ‘Music of the Voids of Outer Space’ is heard by thesis automotive industry, the public as soundtracks to radio mystery serials, science-fiction movies and television series.

Also charting the hitherto unheard depths of the tips a personal statement for pa cosmos innovative young record producer Joe Meek, busily at work in college about academic, 1959, recording ‘I Hear A New World: An Outer Space Music Fantasy’ in tips statement for pa school, his homemade studio on London’s Holloway Road. Only part of this ambitious project is initially released to walt poems essay the public, on an Extended Play disc in 1960, but its contents hint at a troubled loneliness. A sense of isolated introspection clings to the dry static and radioactive clicking of compositions such as ‘Magnetic Field’ and ‘Orbit around the Moon’. To help fill this universal emptiness, Meek employs a steel guitar, on for writing statement school loan from the Cavaliers: the first combo to feature the instrument on a UK pop record. Essay. The glissando produced by running a slide up its strings evokes the thrill of ascension. Its bent notes, clear tones and extended lines, capable of going from the particular to the infinite in tips for writing statement, a matter of seconds, will become some of the quintessential sounds of the thesis 182 Space Race. In 1962 Meek’s international hit tune ‘Telstar’, written and produced for the Tornadoes, becomes the first theme to celebrate human space technology in its own right. Titled after an American telecommunications satellite, its vaulting theme is played back on a Univox Clavioline, an school early electronic keyboard, while the thesis 182 sense of vast distances covered is once again conveyed by the increasingly familiar sound of tape echo feeding back on itself. ‘Telstar’ refers to tips a personal statement for pa a very different universe: one that emits manmade sounds. ‘Life on Venus’, released the following year, takes this a stage further. “News flash!” an urgent voice announces over looped electronic tones. “Signals have been received from the thesis 182 planet Venus. These resemble sounds similar to those created by tips statement school, a musical instrument such as an organ, so perhaps there is life on Venus.” In one simple move, Meek has reduced the occupants of thesis outer space to their machines. In 1963, another machine materializes for the first time on the UK’s television screens. Able to shift through different dimensions of time and space, the TARDIS makes an unearthly noise when in operation: the looped recording of a piano string being rubbed by a house key, courtesy of the school BBC Radiophone Workshop, whose staff now includes the likes of Brian Hodgson and Delia Derbyshire, who is also responsible for lab report realizing Ron Grainer’s evocative Dr Who title theme with assistance from Dick Mills.

As it steadily unfolds, the history of electronic music increasingly becomes a series of intersections with other forms of media, thereby rendering all notions of tips a personal for pa school its inherent purity academic in just about every sense of the thesis 182 word. Dr Who is tips a personal statement for pa school yet another example of how popular culture becomes a carrier signal for what is becoming an alien musical invasion. Thesis On Marijuana. The material produced by tips for pa, the Workshop for the show during its first six years bears all the marks of having been carefully dubbed, processed and statements on marijuana, assembled on tape using only household junk and primitive oscillators as sound sources. Cut together by tips for writing a personal for pa, hand, tracks like ‘Sensorite Speech’ and ‘Dalek Spaceship Lands’ make up with precision of effect what they lack in dynamic range: some might even be mistaken for outtakes from Varese’s Poeme electronique, a work also intersected with architecture and audiovisual design in its creation. Throughout the 1960s, electronic music continues to evolve slowly into a medium for thesis 182 new and unworldly experiences: ones for which the hit parade and television science-fiction serials have only partially prepared them . By 1967 Hodgson and statement for pa school, Derbyshire are taking part in ‘The Million Volt Light and Sound Rave’, a multimedia electronic arts event held at the London Roundhouse on 28 January and 4 February 1967. One lone pioneer not in attendance is Joe Meek.

On February 3, beset by business worries, increasingly paranoid and subject to fits of depression, the essay wikileaks legendary record producer fatally shoots his landlady in the chest with a shotgun he has hidden under his bed before turning the tips for writing a personal statement weapon upon himself. Writing. That same month Hammer Film starts principal photography at MGM Studios Borehamwood for its updated movie adaptation of Quatermass and the Pit. The man responsible for creating the otherworldly sounds of the Martian spacecraft this time is composer Tristram Cary, who is also working on a commission to produce an electronic soundtrack for different sections of the British pavilion at a personal statement for pa, the 1967 World’s Fair in Montreal. Social change takes on a new meaning when seen from the edge of space. Thesis 182. When Nigel Kneale conceived of his characters for the original Quatermass and the Pit back in 1958 it was, he later claims, “to typify human variants, afflicted to different degrees by the alien tampering and driven by for writing a personal statement, the implanted instincts into displays of writing a biology conclusion superstitious fear and tips for writing for pa, racial rigidity when the capsule in the pit warmed up.” By the time the alien spacecraft comes to life, it has already become clear that the Martians are our distant ancestors, whose memory has been kept alive through occult practices, scattered reports of poltergeists and instances of demonic possession. This painful revelation, however, has come too late for us . The psychic violence unleashed at the end of Kneale’s story is a form of ritual cleansing: a purging of the whitman Martian species that should have taken place over five million years ago.

Such scenes were written against the ugly background of a personal racially-motivated clashes in Nottingham, Notting Hill and Bayswater. Ten years previously the automotive Empire Windrush had arrived at Tilbury, bringing 490 Jamaicans to live and work in Britain; by 1958 a growing labour crisis had been resolved by the arrival of some 180,000 more. Tips For Writing Statement. Martian intolerance to their presence took the form of iron bars and petrol bombs: black men were assaulted as they left their places of work. Kneale’s script plays back the theme of invasion, change and mutation as a series of bleak ironies, the biggest of all being that no matter where we find ourselves in space, someone else has always been there before us. This much is as true in 1967 as it was back in 1958.

Tristram Cary recreates the deep throbbing vibrations of the Martian hull and the resultant screeching panic of the churning London streets in the new Electronic Studio he has helped establish at the Royal College of Music. These sounds seem deeper, richer and more alien than might have seemed possible even five years before; but they also come shadowed by some of the more recent changes to college about academic take place within the Spaceship UK programme. In 1967 Syd Barrett runs a Zippo lighter along the strings of for writing school his guitar on ‘See Emily Play’, recorded during the studio sessions for the Pink Floyd’s first LP, Piper at the Gates of writing a biology Dawn. The slide into tips a personal, space started by Joe Meek’s addition of a steel guitar to the extraterrestrial sounds on college goals ‘I Hear A New World’ has now been given its fullest expression as Barrett’s psychedelic glissando is prolonged and expanded through tape echo effects. ‘Interstellar Overdrive’ and ‘Astronomy Domine’, two more Barrett compositions from the same album, represent what happens to pop culture’s space-age thrust once it is set free of the tips for writing for pa school 7” single’s restrictive running time. Accustomed to playing extended sets at essay academic goals, underground venues like London’s UFO club, Pink Floyd represent a younger generation of musicians who see the exploration of sound as an end in itself. It becomes an event that makes the loneliness of life in statement for pa, space seem more endurable. The creeping awareness that someone has got there before us is flipped over into the realization that we ourselves are the aliens. The outer cosmos has become internalized. The oscillating feedback introducing each verse of the master thesis automotive Rolling Stones’ 1967 single ‘Two Thousand Light Years From Home’ carried echoes of Joe Meek’s isolated descent into paranoia and madness.

Adding a glacial sheen to this frozen hymn to distance and for writing a personal for pa, loneliness is the Mellotron MkII. A keyboard instrument originally designed to writing emulate the tips for writing statement school lushness of an entire orchestra by playing back pre-recorded tape loops, its reedy tones sound like nothing on Earth. Together with the Clavioline, now heard in 1967 providing fills and thesis industry, runs on the Beatles’ ‘Baby, You’re A Rich Man’ having formerly carried the melody on a personal statement for pa school Meek’s ‘Telstar’, the Mellotron has too distinctive a tone to sustain repeated use. Essay Wikileaks. Something that combines the versatility of the electronic music studio with the compactness of a musical instrument is required. Having been a radio enthusiast in his teens and tips for writing for pa school, trained as a radar operator during the Second World War, Tristram Cary already knows his way around a circuit diagram.

In 1969 he joins Dr Peter Zinovieff and essay wikileaks, David Cockerell in founding the Electronic Music Studios (EMS), the company responsible for developing the VCS3: one of the first commercially available portable synthesizers. A distinctive array of a personal oscillators, patch panel and joystick, tidily arranged with a free-standing wooden box, the EMS VCS3 is the shape of essay wikileaks things to come: its introduction at the end of the 1960s marking a radical shift in the exploration of sound in space. One of the first recordings to statement test the EMS VCS3’s potential is Electric Storm by White Noise: a collaborative project featuring ‘Production Coordinator’ David Vorhaus, also in master thesis, charge of ‘Special Stereo effects’, with Delia Derbyshire and Brian Hodgson on ‘Electronic Sound Realization’. Although put out by Island Records, a label initially set up to release Jamaican reggae and progressive rock albums, Electric Storm exists in an alien iciness of its own making. Compositions such as ‘Love without Sound’ and tips for writing a personal statement for pa, ‘Firebird’ have all the breathy charm of psychedelic pop but feel as if they had also been cryogenically frozen for a biology lab report long-haul spaceflight. The same intensity can be found in Derbyshire’s contributions to tips for writing the BBC Radiophonic Workshop album, released around the essay wikileaks same time. Her manipulation of sound on tape, notable in the darkly brooding expanses of for writing a personal statement ‘The Delian Mode’ and ‘Blue Veils and essay wikileaks, Golden Sands’, both created for the BBC, fit the for writing times so closely that they almost pass unnoticed. Discontent is spreading throughout Spaceship Earth, sparking riots in Paris and London, Washington and Chicago, Watts and New York. Satellite telecommunication systems mean that the whole world can now participate in what is happening as it happens; meanwhile pictures of our world sent back from the Moon during the summer of 1969 show a Global Village that is at once peaceful, remote and still. With the a biology departure of Apollo XVII from the lunar surface in December 1972, the Space Race appears to be over before it has even started, survived only by the Cold War pressures that helped produce it.

In the UK, however, it may seem to have gone on school longer. The night before Apollo XI touches down in the Sea of Tranquility, Pink Floyd performs ‘Moonhead’ live on BBC television: by 1972 they are experimenting in the studio with the EMS VCS3 and Synthi A, recording their bestselling album The Dark Side of the a biology lab report conclusion Moon. Also using EMS synthesizers around the same time are King Crimson, Brian Eno, Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream and the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, who purchases the massive EMS Synthi 100, nicknames it ‘The Delaware’ and tips for pa, puts it into production, supplying soundtracks for industry the sci-fi series Dr Who, Blake’s Seven and a personal for pa school, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. It seems increasingly appropriate that the term ‘sci-fi’, first coined by enthusiast Forrest J Ackerman, has its origin in the 1950s mania for stereophonic ‘hi-fi’ systems. As synthesizers become cheaper and more compact, electronic music moves slowly out of the studio and into clubs, concert venues and thesis 182, dancehalls . A lot still separates the tips for writing statement school soundtrack from what it was intended to accompany, however. The unearthly sounds created throughout the college academic goals 1950s and 1960s have sketched out a future that many listeners are starting to despair of ever catching up with. What often fills the gap between the two is the actual business of for pa school making the music itself. Thanks to the growing supply of new electronic instruments, publishing companies like Music de Wolfe, KPM, Chappell and Studio G are now able to supply the commercial TV and radio industries with vast libraries of pre-recorded material. Whitman Essay. Following Desmond Leslie’s example, David Vorhaus, Brian Hodgson and Delia Derbyshire have collaborated on tips for writing statement an album of electronic space effects for the Standard Music Library, all of which will feature on the ITV children’s science-fiction serial The Tomorrow People, starting in 1973. Created with a specific outcome but no clear purpose in mind, Library Music is often designed to fit with events that haven’t even happened yet. Quite often it traces the outer edges of a musical effect, the point at which a particular style, instrument or technique has had its broadest influence and is now being stretched to thesis 182 the point where it’s barely recognisable . Its creators do not trade in moods or emotions; they merely hint at them and leave the school listener to do the college about academic rest.

The audio equivalent of astronaut food, this is tips a personal statement music that has been freeze-dried and vacuum-packed for future consumption. Two other forms of space music emerging from the UK’s sonic underground during the early 1970s seem much more immediate. Essay Wikileaks. Recorded live at the end of 1972 and released the following year, Hawkwind’s Space Ritual double album concerns the dreams and fantasies of seven space explorers in suspended animation far from Earth. Blending stripped-down rock rhythms with pulsating electronic sounds played at very high volume, Hawkwind’s music inhabits an existentially harsh universe. ‘ Space is a remorseless, senseless, impersonal fact ,’ reveals the for writing for pa school manual designed to accompany the performance. Writing Lab Report Conclusion. ‘ Space is the absence of time and matter .’ Poems by band member Bob Calvert and science-fantasy novelist Michael Moorcock incorporated into the Ritual emphasize the horrors unleashed upon human consciousness confronted with the phenomenological vastness of a personal for pa school space. Another perspective on the same experience is offered in writing lab report, the nation’s dancehalls by tips for writing school, the operators of sound systems specializing in Dub Reggae: studio versions of existing songs that have had much of the melody and walt poems, lyrics removed from the mix, leaving only the drum and bass tracks. The remaining brief stabs of musical content are then fed through sophisticated echo effects that plunge the listener into a deep, hallucinatory experience of space. Seemingly random selections of sounds and a personal for pa school, words, extended electronically in time, take on a new significance: one that listeners can almost feel. To enhance the effect further still, Dub track producers often cut out the middle range of the mix, leaving only the low-end bass and the high treble sounds, which they then tweak even further until only a skeletal outline of some endless audible distance is left.

Early explorers of the college essay about goals sound, such as Lee Perry, King Tubby and Errol Thompson, become recognisable by a personal statement for pa school, the feel they bring to their dub creations from behind the walt whitman poems controls of the studio mixing desk. As the space exploration programme, along with the industrial power base that has helped drive it, continues its rapid deceleration, the earthbound economy of mass production starts to go into reverse as well. Tips A Personal School. The UK workforce shrinks rapidly as factories close: unemployment becomes a new form of walt social purge, dividing communities and limiting expectations. The heavy rhythms of dub and the sonic aggression of space rock recombine in the late 1970s to form an tips for writing for pa school angry ‘industrial’ form of electronic music in which tape loops, customized synthesizers and early drum machines parody the essay wikileaks mindless repetitions of the assembly line at a time when many are already falling silent. Operating out of Sheffield, Cabaret Voltaire creates the soundtrack for for writing a personal a disappearing populace: early pictures of the group show Richard H Kirk, Chris Watson and Stephen Mallinder posing amidst what looks like a rundown version of the Radiophonic Workshop. However, their reel-to-reel tapes, wires and EMS patch panels are being used to record tracks with titles like ‘Do the Mussolini (Headkick)’, ‘Baader Meinhoff’ and ‘Spread the Virus’. Writing Conclusion. So far, so ugly: the a personal for pa charting of social space has always promised alien encounters of the most disturbing kind. A sliver of thesis statements on marijuana dialogue taken from an old sixties sci-fi show and for writing a personal for pa, looped at the start of their 1982 track ‘Yashar’ manages to say it all. “There’s seventy billion people on Earth,” a male voice anxiously inquires. “Where are they hiding?” The image of humanity as a hidden or invisible mass seems entirely appropriate to a period of accelerated scale-back and downsizing. A Biology Lab Report Conclusion. The following year Brian Eno, in collaboration with his brother Roger and for pa school, Daniel Lanois, releases Apollo: Atmospheres and Soundtracks to accompany stock NASA footage in a film documentary on the lunar missions.

Adding to the celestial shimmer and poems, dazzle of the electronic sounds are the tips for writing a personal statement for pa unmistakably western tones of whitman poems essay a steel guitar; last heard on Joe Meek’s ‘I Hear A New World’, it still evokes memories of isolation and lost frontiers. It has taken just ten years since the final depopulation of the tips for writing a personal statement Moon back in 1972 to recognize that a similar process is also taking place in many of the cities here on our home planet. With little else to do with their time as the century approaches its end, the unseen inhabitants of essay Earth start dancing instead . Always the future sound of well-ordered productivity, electronic music is consequently transformed into dance music. The opposing activities of tips for writing statement school work and master, play converge in clubs and dancehalls throughout the UK, where a slow and steady process of discovery takes place over the remaining two decades of the millennium. Playback of this new species of electronic beat in such venues is largely determined by how it is stored and reproduced. Remixed as a club track, Cabaret Voltaire’s ‘Yashar’ becomes a skeletal set of rhythms extended in time over the entire side of 12” vinyl disc mastered to play at 45rpm, the school standard rotational speed of college essay academic a pop single.

Already exploited during the 1970s by Dub producers and sound-system operators to broaden the range and dynamics of tips for writing statement for pa their mixes, the 12” single offers deeper and conclusion, longer grooves, allowing beats to have a precisely programmed effect upon the dance-floor. Cutting and looping tracks together, the DJ creates elisions in time and space capable of for writing school enveloping dancers across the Western hemisphere . Cuts by UK bands such as Cabaret Voltaire, Depeche Mode and New Order are dropped into DJ sets at underground clubs across the US Eastern Seaboard, helping to shape the futuristic sounds of House and Techno in the hollowed-out industrial cores of Chicago and Detroit respectively. In a reciprocal effect, the after-party takes place in writing lab report conclusion, Manchester, where the for writing a personal for pa tight hallucinogenic repetitions of Acid House are rewired using cheap samplers, even cheaper drum machines and the Roland 303 Bass Line: a device previously discarded as not having enough bottom-end but ideal, it turns out, for producing the kind of writing lab report conclusion sonic blurring required by space travellers eager to dance all night. This is hard music for hard times. Formerly a member of Manchester industrial band Biting Tongues, Graham Massey becomes partners in 808 State with Gerald Simpson and Martin Price just so they can pool their equipment.

Technical resources for this new project are so limited that cables are cut in half in order to patch more machines together while bare wires are jammed into power sockets with matchsticks to tips for writing school cut down on costs. However, chart hits like 808 State’s ‘Pacific State’ and A Guy Called Gerald’s ‘Voodoo Ray’ quickly reinvent electronic music as something the invisible public of the late twentieth century can inhabit: an artificial environment to be experienced as much as listened to. The sampler becomes a means of digitally reactivating sounds and voices that have been kept in cultural cold storage for decades: drum-breaks, bass-lines and snatches of melody lifted from old records are cut together with dialogue and walt whitman poems, sound effects supplied by old sci-fi and horror movies. Nurtured within the dark, humid atmosphere of the dance club, weird new musical hybrids come into for writing statement for pa, being: Ambient House, Jungle Techno and Dark House flourish alongside Drum and Bass, Tech Step and Ambient Dub. Finally all of thesis 182 these alien species of technological plant life are grouped together under a single, suitably botanical-sounding classification: electronica. Since the for writing a personal for pa school introduction of this term, the history of essay wikileaks electronic music has expanded to tips for writing a personal for pa fill the space provided by it. Perceived as somehow anonymous and removed from established conventions, never has a body of work been attributed to ‘various artists’ with greater accuracy than that which is regularly regarded as ‘electronica’. Library Music archives, especially those dating from late 1950s to industry the early 1970s, are continually probed for tips school fresh recordings to be sampled, studied or stored on compilation CDs. The product of an industrial process rather than the creative endeavour of individual talents, it is the perfect musical readymade by thesis statements, virtue of which history is constantly being rewritten as context rather than intention.

Taking the whole process a stage further, Jim Jupp and Julian House of a personal statement Ghost Box Records access the music of the past by the simple expedient of creating it for themselves. Recent albums by the likes of Belbury Poly, the Focus Group, Roj and the Advisory Circle all seem to have emanated from essay wikileaks some obscure catalogue of recordings that exists in a parallel universe. By giving narrative shape to tips for writing a personal statement for pa such spectral emanations, its releases always feel more like transcriptions of past events: mere fragments of voices and the outlines of faces tracing a few phantom gestures and writing lab report conclusion, shared memories. Similarly, Graham Massey’s latest project, the Sisters of Transistors, can trace their origins back to tips school the Lillian Meyers Organ Quartet who overwhelmed visitors to the 1939 New York World’s Fair through their skilful keyboard technique. Whitman Essay. In a grim echo of the mass hysteria generated by the Martian spaceship after its discovery in Knightsbridge, the history of this remarkable all-female ensemble, as detailed in school, the sleeve notes to their debut album, is filled with incidents of thesis statements audience members succumbing to feelings of intense anxiety followed by an overwhelming sense of euphoria.

Playing at church halls, airfields and tips for writing a personal school, scooter runs, the Sisters of Transistors blend themes from hymns and horror movies to alarming effect, using a wide range of vintage electric organs and synthesizers. Thesis Industry. Also picking up the ancient Martian pulsations first heard in Quatermass and the Pit over fifty years ago is Ghost Box’s reissue of Mount Vernon Arts Lab’s The Seance at Hobs Lane. Tips Statement For Pa School. Brainchild of Glasgow-based composer Drew Mulholland, its title references the precise London location where the a biology Martian hull is first unearthed, long known as the site of numerous disturbing apparitions. Using the VCS3, ARP2600 and Minimoog, Mulholland conjures up sinister whirring vibrations that seem to come from somewhere deep beneath the ground. Meanwhile, its sensors fixed firmly upon tips for pa, the heart of the solar system, Ruth Jarman and Joseph Gerhardt’s ‘fictional documentary’ Brilliant Noise uses satellite imagery of activity on the Sun’s surface to trigger its own soundtrack. College Essay About Goals. Operating out of Brighton as Semiconductor, the duo have created an arresting stream of sound films, music videos, live cinema events and multimedia installations that explore the mysterious terrain between the for writing school visual and the auditory, the thesis 182 instantaneous and a personal, the preprogrammed. Beyond selecting and editing the untreated footage that makes up this enigmatic and challenging short film, they have added nothing except synthesized sounds associated with radio astronomy and solar radiation, using the wildly flickering image to thesis 182 control their intensity. Images exist that can never be completely resolved take shape quicker than the eye can capture them.

The line between abstraction and representation is for writing a personal rapidly erased. ‘ The future has collapsed in on college goals the present ,’ declares the promotional literature for Memories of the Future, a collaborative album released by Kode9 and The Spaceape in 2006, ‘ and spaceship earth is en route to nowhere .’ It is the writer Kodwo Eshun who first proposes that science fiction be read as music theory. Published in 1998, the same year in which the BBC shuts down the Radiophonic Workshop forever, his book Brighter than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction reconfigures outer space as cybernetic space. Tips For Writing. Subsequent musical explorations such as Dubstep take place within a collapsing universe of styles and effects, one that has become so dense that it threatens to stop time itself. Dub effects, Drum and Bass breaks and Dancehall rhythms crowd in upon other each other exerting planetary extremes of pressure upon the listener.

In tune with this compacted new cosmology, Kode9 is the adopted alias for Steve Goodman, who has a PhD from Warwick University and is the author of the recent MIT volume Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear. This universe still has a history that is yet to be written : with Tristram Cary’s early electronic work available for essay wikileaks the first time on compact disc, pioneer Daphne Oram’s archives being lovingly catalogued at Goldsmiths College in London, and Delia Derbyshire’s recordings having been taken in school, by the master automotive industry University of Manchester, its origins are only just being unearthed . London, March/April 2010. Our Minute of Listening delivery partner. BPM work tirelessly to bring music to the children of Bristol. Leaders in the word of instrument innovation. One of our residency partners for our Talent Development Programme. Our partner on Next wave 2 with Sage Gateshead. A record label committed to the promotion exceptional new music.

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