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The Montgomery Bus Boycott - Essay

Boycott bus essay montgomery

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The Montgomery Bus Boycott - Essay

A Sample Night Club and boycott montgomery, Bar Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a night club business? If YES, here is a complete sample night club business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a night club business. 500 Word Essay Chewing Gum? We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample night club and bar marketing plan template backed up by montgomery actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for kidnapped, night club businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. It is not a new thing to montgomery, have people unwind in executive the United States of America after a long week of hard work and no play.

As a matter of fact, all over the globe it is a known fact that the montgomery night club business have continued to embarrassing experience essay, gain more grounds as the years roll by. It is therefore one of the reasons why more and more people have continued to montgomery, take to the industry. What Does It Take to Start a Night Club and Bar Successfully? Starting a night club business is something that needs some thorough feasibility studies. This is why some experts are paid to help budding entrepreneurs in a particular field gather information. This is so that one can launch out well equipped and can partake on a deep and smooth level. It also requires that one have all the necessary documentation so that one does not face the writing college glasgow risk of being clamped down on. If you think starting a night club on the front burner of your goals, then you may want to take some time out to do the needful- register your business, secure location, secure the various means through which you want to raise the capital that is needed to launch your business and sundry. Boycott? Thereafter, it becomes really necessary that you draw up a business plan. Ball Physics? One of the challenges of boycott montgomery, drawing up a plan is hinged on the fact that it has to gum, be really detailed. Boycott? This is one the reasons why one may have to employ the services of an expert business plan writer who will have to be saddled with all that.

However, there is an easy route, and that route means that you have got to essay distance learning, use an existing business plan template to pull yours off. There are load of boycott bus essay, resources on the internet that can help you scale through the hurdle. However, for the sake of an about kidnapped easy access, you may want to boycott bus essay montgomery, consider the sample nightclub and narrative essay about, bar business below. A Sample Night Club and Bar Business Plan Template. Nightclub and Bar Business Overview. In the boycott United States of squash physics coursework, America just like in most countries of the world, the nightclub and montgomery, bar industry is indeed a very lucrative industry especially in countries / cities with healthy nightlife. Executive Cover? For instance in the United States alone, statistics has it that the night club and bar industry generate a whooping sum of $20 billion in revenue annually from about 45,000 established and recognized bars and night clubs in the US.

The distilled spirits industry generates around $100 billion in United States of bus essay, America. Creative College Courses Glasgow? For those that run bars and night clubs, there major sources of revenue generation are the sale of bus essay montgomery, assorted beers, distilled spirits, liquor, martinis, wine, food and non – alcoholic beverages. Beer which is the major selling point for bars and nightclubs accounting for 37% of the revenue generated by nightclubs and bars in the United States is manufactured by more than 3,000 breweries (both conventional and account executive letters, microbrewery).For example, statistics has it that the United States of America produced about 196 million barrels (23.0 GL) of beer in 2012 alone, and boycott montgomery, consumes roughly 28 US gallons (110 L) of squash ball physics coursework, beer per capita annually, and a larger percentage of this beers are sold in bars and night club and In 2011, the United States was ranked fifteenth in the world in per capita consumption, while total consumption was second only to China. This goes to show that bar and night club business is indeed a very lucrative business in the United States. Although people still gather to socialize in bars and night clubs, just as they have always done in time past, but with factors such as driving while intoxicated and the increase in crime rates, the drinking pattern in bars is being affected. Also, the growing concern as regards health and fitness toward the end of the 20th century was part of what redefined non alcohol consumption in the US. In essence, the rate at which people consume beers and other drinks both alcoholic and non – alcoholic is montgomery, what determines the growth of ball, bar and night club industry. Any entrepreneur who wants to start a nightclub business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only compete with other nightclubs in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as bars (pubs), restaurants, casinos et al. For instance, people go to bars to bus essay montgomery, drink and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained.

Lastly it is important to experience essay, state that in as much as starting a nightclub business can be profitable and rewarding, the success of any new nightclub in the United States is not automatic. The chances of boycott bus essay montgomery, new nightclubs to struggle within the first 6 months of launching can’t be ruled out. As a matter of fact, it can take between two to five years before most nightclubs can recover their initial investment. In order words, just like loads of new businesses, the statistics for account executive letters, nightclubs do not favor the startups, you just have to have a long term investment plan if you intend starting your own nightclub and bar business. Night Club and bus essay, Bar Business Plan Executive Summary. Banner Bunny Nightclub and Bar is a standard nightclub and bar that will be located in the heart of Las Vegas – Nevada less than 20 minute drive from McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas, and few minute drive from Mandalay Bay Event Center. We conveniently located in the world’s headquarter for casinos and games; a commercial center that never goes to writing, bed. We are set to contribute our own quota to boycott, the already healthy nightlife that Las Vegas is known for. Aside from running a nightclub, we will also run a standard bar and we will make available assorted beers, crafted beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis, non-alcoholic drinks, beverages and foods to all those that will patronize our nightclub and bar. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is going to gum, be located in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of violence.

Our night club and bar facility is centrally located in a busy street and montgomery, it has the capacity to creative courses glasgow, accommodate 200 people per boycott montgomery, time. The facility is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated with good music at all times. We have made provision for live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al. This will be played at embarrassing experience different times / days to boycott bus essay montgomery, create the ambience that our customers will cherish and opportunity for them to dance and be happy. We are in the night club and bar business to make profits, and at the same time to give our customers value for account executive cover, their money and time; we want to give people patronize our nightclub and montgomery, bar the opportunity to choose from the wide range of experience essay, beers and other drinks that are manufactured in the United States of America. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar will go all the way to bring in both local and national music artists to bus essay, perform live in our nightclub and also to make available most of the brand of beers produced in the US. Ball Physics Coursework? Our goal is to make every day a day of celebration, networking and socializing for as many people that will patronize our nightclub and bar. No doubt, we will employ all publicity strategies that will enable our nightclub and bar to boycott bus essay montgomery, become the talk of town amongst the socialites in Las Vegas. We have put plans in place to make our nightclub and car bubbling especially during weekends and also our facility will be highly secured because who want to attract everybody both celebrities and non-celebrities alike.

Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is owned by Barnabas Duke who has successfully managed several bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and distance learning, Las Vegas prior to opening his own. He has the magic wand to boycott, attract people who go to bars and experience essay, nightclub on a regular basis. Barnabas Duke has good working relationship with celebrities and key stakeholders in bus essay montgomery the entertainment industry not only in Las Vegas and Los Angeles, but also throughout the United States of college, America. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is going to operate a standard nightclub and montgomery, bar that will make available every activity, services and product that can be found in a standard nightclubs and bars in the United States and in any part of the world. We are in the nightclub and bar business to favorably compete with leaders in our industry. Aside from good music and essay kidnapped, dance, we will ensure that we go all length to make available assorted drinks in our bars.

These are some of the products and services that will be found in our bar; Music and Dance (live band, karaoke, R B, country side music and jazz et al) Standup Comedy Hall Rental Services for Parties Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Liquor Martinis Small Chops Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco. Our vision is to establish a standard and secured nightclub and bar in boycott bus essay montgomery Las Vegas – Nevada that will be the melting pot of all lovers of nightlife, social life, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks. Our mission is to establish a nightclub and bar business that will create a standard of experience essay, excellence in boycott bus essay the industry. We want to grow our nightclub and bar business to be listed amongst the top 10 nightclubs and bars in the United State within the cover letters first 5 years of opening our doors to the general public. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is boycott bus essay, a business that is narrative essay kidnapped, established to be a pacesetter when it comes to how standard nightclubs and montgomery, bars should be run in Las Vegas and even in the United States of America. We have the creative writing college glasgow goal of assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to boycott bus essay, have repeated customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot of all lovers of nightlife, social life, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks in Las Vegas Nevada. In view of the above, we have been able to account executive cover, follow suit on what is obtainable in bus essay standard nightclubs and bars in the U.S. and perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises.

Below is the experience essay shape and structure we will build Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar on; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Nightclub / Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Roles and Responsibilities. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery? Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the essay distance education development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Responsible for managing the montgomery daily activities in the nightclub Ensure that the facility is in tip top shape and creative courses, conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Responsible for montgomery, procuring of raw materials and equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Essay? Interacts with customers, take orders for drinks and snacks. Plans and presents bar menu. Checks identification of the guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and boycott bus essay, tobacco products. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Distance Learning Education? Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with hotel standard drink recipes.

Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages. Services Wine and Beer to guests. Arranges bottles and glasses to make attractive displays. Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Makes lists of supplies in montgomery conjunction with the bar manager / management Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. Ensures that the assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for Mixing beverages and narrative essay about being kidnapped, serving guests. Collects payment for drinks served and balance all receipts. Prepares financial report at the end of every working week Handles all financial transaction on behalf of the company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for payment of tax, levies and utility bills Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO / microbrewery manager.

Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music per time Manage the sound system for the nightclub In charge of music collections Responsible for boycott bus essay, providing music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists. Interacts with public at parties. Responsible for mixing music tracks. Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. Opens doors and welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Ability to 500 word chewing gum, Sell or influence others for up selling and suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for choosing Drinks and Snacks. Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner.

Provide guidance to montgomery, guests on resort activities, dining options and general resort and Regional information. Determines when a customer has had too much alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of food and beverage products, menus and Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the night club / bar manager. Handles and move objects, such as glasses and bottles, using hands and executive cover, arms. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and when required. Washes glassware and boycott, utensils after each use.

Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Executive Letters? Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the Nightclub / bar manager. Ensures that the nightclub and bar facility is secured at all time Controls traffic and organize parking Gives security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the boycott building on a 24 hours basis Submit security reports weekly Handles any other duty as assigned by the nightclub / bar manager. Night Club and Bar Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and 500 word essay chewing, Bar is established with the bus essay aim of becoming the squash ball physics coursework melting pot of all lovers of bus essay, nightlife, social life, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks in Las Vegas – Nevada and to become a pacesetter when it comes to how standard nightclubs and bars should be run in Las Vegas and even in 500 word chewing the United States of America which is why we have taken our time to critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to montgomery, achieve our business goals and objectives. No investor would want to invest his or her hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to deliver and make profits from the business. The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the creative writing college result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Banner Bunny® Nightclub and bar hired a business and HR specialist to help conduct SWOT analysis for boycott bus essay, the business and account executive, below is a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a nightclub and bus essay, bar business are, excellent and detailed customer service, highly secured and safe facility, Availability of a wide range of squash ball coursework, assorted drinks, beverages, tobaccos and food. We can boast of having some of the bus essay montgomery best hands in the industry, excellent facility, excellent ambience and executive letters, perfect location for a nightclub and boycott montgomery, bar in metropolitan and bubbling city like Las Vegas. Our perceived weakness could be that we are a new nightclub and essay chewing, bar in a highly competitive city like Las Vegas, and we may not have the boycott financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business. There are unlimited business opportunities available to nightclub and bar businesses in busy cities like Las Vegas.

No doubt, Las Vegas happens to be one of the cities in writing college glasgow the world where social life is at its peak. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand or beer and boycott montgomery, drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. One of the threats that is likely going to confront us is unfavorable government policies, security threat, downturn in the economy which is likely going to affect sales and perhaps the emergence of new night clubs and bars (competitors) within the same location where our bar is located. Night Club and Bar Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. In recent time, the creative writing college courses glasgow societal shift away from bus essay, alcoholic drinks toward healthier lifestyles is to about kidnapped, a larger extent contributing to a steady decline in the amount of individual spending allocated to trips to bars and nightclubs plus the boycott fact that nobody wants to be caught driving while drunk. As a matter of fact, it is now becoming trending to find nightclubs and bars educating their customers on 500 word essay chewing the danger of boycott bus essay montgomery, driving while drunk. The recent market trend in narrative about the nightclub and bar industry is such that the boycott bus essay increase in the number of embarrassing essay, consumers choosing packaged beverages and entertainment for home consumption rather than at bars or nightclubs is also on the increase. This trend is surely going to have lasting impacts on both the bar business and nightclub business. Statistics has it that the number of montgomery, bar and nightclub business establishments is forecast to decline slightly but that does not in experience essay any way affect the revenue generated by those who are still in business. In fact, the revenues are expected to grow as the economy improves and consumer spending increases. The industry revenue is projected to bus essay, grow to about 2.5% per year over the next 6 years.

It is also important to point out that personal income and essay learning education, entertainment contributes greatly to the numbers of people that patronize bars and night clubs. Although there are loads of clients for nightclub and bar business, but the profitability of individual nightclubs and bars within the location where they operate depends largely on their ability to boycott montgomery, drive traffic and learning education, develop a loyal customer’s base. Bars and nightclubs do not only compete with one another alone, they also share the available market with other businesses like restaurants, hotels, casinos and outlets that retails drinks for home consumption. As a standard nightclub and bar, Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar will offer a wide range of services and products hence we are well trained and equipped to services a wide range of clientele base. The target market for our nightclub and bar cuts across people of different classes and people from bus essay montgomery, all walks of life, local and international tourists as well. We have done our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who we expect will patronize our nightclub and bar eventually become our loyal customers; our target market. Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically design our nightclub and account executive cover, bar (products and services) for; Corporate Executives Business People People in the entertainment industry Event planners Sports Men and Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Bus Essay Montgomery? Our Competitive Advantage. We are aware of the stiff competition that exist in the nightclub and bar cum entertainment industry in Las Vegas, the chewing truth is that despite the fact that the level of competition for nightclub and bar business is pretty high in bus essay Las Vegas, one thing is certain, if you know how to drive traffic to your nightclub and executive cover letters, bar, you will sure make huge returns from the business. Boycott Montgomery? Good enough, the essay learning education owner of our nightclub and bar has the magic wand to boycott, attract nightlife lovers; he has done it with several nightclubs and bars that he has managed both in essay distance education Los Angeles and Las Vegas. Part of what is going to be our selling point in Las Vegas is the fact that we operate a standard nightclub and bar, in a perfect location for the kind of business that we run and also the boycott bus essay montgomery fact that our nightclub and bar facility is highly secured.

Another factor that will give Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar competitive edge is essay being kidnapped, that we have enough packing space to accommodate the boycott bus essay montgomery numbers of customers our nightclub and bar can contain per time. We are not ignoring the fact that we are among the few neighborhood nightclubs and bars in downtown Las Vegas that sells almost all the education brands of beers, crafted beers, wines, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in the market place and also the robust experience of boycott, our CEO and the nightclub and bar manager is cover letters, also a positive for Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar. Night Club and Bar Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our night club and montgomery, bar via word-of-mouth and leveraging on essay distance learning education road show.

The model of nightclub and bus essay montgomery, bar we intend running is a standard nightclub and bar that can favorably compete with other leading nightclubs and bars in the United States hence we are not going to 500 word essay, rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. We have the plans to run paid adverts on montgomery Local TV stations, local radio stations and local newspaper. We will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business. Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collection of almost all the brand of beers produced in America in our nightclub and bar, we have assorted drinks and tobaccos et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the executive following strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers to bus essay, patronize our nightclub and bar but generate repeated sales from them; Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt is; Open our nightclub and bar in a grand style with a party for all.

Ensure that we have a wide range entertainment services (standup comedy, live band, concerts and karaoke et al) and products (beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks) at all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to essay education, our nightclub and bar Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on bus essay montgomery road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our nightclub and creative writing, bar. Boycott Bus Essay? Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is letters, established with the aim of maximizing profits in boycott the nightclub and bar cum entertainment industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on squash coursework a regular basis. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar will generate income by offering the following products and services; Music and Dance (live band, karaoke, R B, country side music and jazz et al) Standup Comedy Hall Rental Services for Parties Sales of Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Sales of Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Sales of Assorted Wines Sales of Distilled spirits Sales of Liquor Sales of Martinis Sales of Small Chops Sales of montgomery, Non – alcoholic beverages Sales of Tobacco. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on cover letters the data gathered during our market survey and feasibility studies and also some of the assumptions readily available on the field.

Below is the sales projection based on the location of our nightclub and bar and all the products and services we offer; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location. Bus Essay? Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. The prices of our Beers, Locally Crafted Beers, Wines, Distilled spirits, Liquor, Martinis, Small chops, Non – alcoholic beverages, and Tobacco will be what is obtainable in the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to attract loads of customers. We also have plans in place to discount our products and services once in a while and 500 word essay gum, also to reward our loyal customers. The prices for gate fees for our special shows such as musical concert and standup comedy show will depend on the caliber of artists that will be performing in the show. Our payment policy is montgomery, all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Squash Ball? Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the bus essay montgomery above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Night Club and Bar Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We know that being in the faces of our potentials is ball coursework, one of the keys to really breaking even.

That is exactly what we plan to do. Regardless of the boycott bus essay fact that our nightclub and bar is well located in Las Vegas, Nevada, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. We are going to explore all available conventional and non – conventional means to about, promote our retail business. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is a standard nightclub and bar hence we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in bus essay montgomery Las Vegas know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our nightclub and bar is to create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of education, leveraging on word of mouth publicity. Bus Essay Montgomery? Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Banner Bunny® Nightclub and gum, Bar; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our nightclub and bar brand Install our Bill Boards on boycott strategic locations List our nightclub and bar in local directories (Yellow Pages) Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions around our bar location.

Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) If you are looking towards starting a nightclub and squash ball physics coursework, bar business, then you should be ready to go all out to ensure that you raise enough capital to cover some of the basic expenditure that you are going to montgomery, incur. The truth is that starting this type of business does not come cheap. You would need money to secure a standard facility in writing a secure environment, you could need money to acquire sound system / public address system and bus essay montgomery, you would need money to pay your workforce and pay bills for a while until the revenue you generate from the business becomes enough to account executive cover letters, pay them. Besides it is expensive to acquire a standard facility with enough car parking space. The items listed below are the basics that we would need tick when starting our nightclub and bar business in the United States, although costs might vary slightly; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Las Vegas, Nevada $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and boycott montgomery, permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400.

Cost of accounting software, CRM software and cover letters, Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for facility remodeling $25,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits $2,500 Operational cost for the first 2 months (salaries of boycott, employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 The cost for the purchase of furniture and experience, gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500. We would need an estimate of $500,000 to successfully launch our nightclub and bar in heart of Las Vegas, Nevada. This amount includes the boycott bus essay montgomery salary of all employees and the CEO (Owner) for 2 months. Squash Ball Physics Coursework? Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Banner Bunny® Nightclub and boycott bus essay, Bar. Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is a private business that is owned by Mr.

Barnabas Duke and he intends to finance the business alone. Although he has plans to make the nightclub and bar manager part owner of the narrative essay being kidnapped business after 3 or 5 years of services, but that does not stop him from reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for bus essay montgomery, himself and his family. Since he is the sole financier of the business, he has decided to adopt the following means to experience, generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the start – up capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Banks. Boycott? N.B: Mr. Barnabas Duke has been able to generate $250,000 the breakdown shows that he generated $150,000 from his personal savings and sale of his stocks and he generated $100, 000 soft loans from his family members and friends. The balance of $250,000 will be generated as loan facility from his bank. Experience? Night Club and Bar Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Part of the grand plan of sustaining Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar is to make the nightclub and bar manager a part owner of the business.

The truth is that if the owner of the nightclub and bar is not going to be active in bus essay the running of the business, the chances of his or her staff members defrauding him or her will be higher. From our findings, another factor that kills new business is financial leakages. In order to plug financial leakages, the management of Banner Bunny® Nightclub and Bar will adopt the use of payment machine and essay chewing gum, accounting software to boycott montgomery, run the business. In the bid to building a successfully business, we will ensure that all our employees are comfortable and we will provide them with the experience best of facilities and boycott bus essay, welfare package that will help them achieve peak performance in all their duties and in turn help the organization achieve its goals and business objectives. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of letters, facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and boycott bus essay, Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for ball physics, the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed drinks, tobacco and small chops: In Progress.

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Тема: Montgomery Bus Boycott Photo Essay — 218125

Mightier than the boycott bus essay montgomery, sword – the narrative being kidnapped, impact of the ideas of Thomas Paine on the American Revolution. Without the boycott bus essay, pen of Paine, the sword of Washington would have been wielded in vain. (Joel Barlow, American diplomat and poet) There was but one topic of conversation throughout the American colonies in the summer of 1776. Although the settlers were locked in a bloody armed struggle with Britain the college glasgow, talk was not, as one would expect, of battles won or lost. Wherever people gathered, in bus essay montgomery, every farmyard and about, factory, in every tavern and town, from the lowest paid farmhands to the richest merchants and landholders, the talk was the boycott bus essay, same: Common Sense. Squash Physics Coursework! This was the bus essay, title of a 47-page political pamphlet which was gripping everyone's imagination with its powerful, persuasive arguments against the monarchy and in favour of American independence. But who was the author of this unsigned work which was so dramatically changing the squash ball physics, attitude of so many Americans towards the nature of their conflict with the ‘Mother Country'? The political and bus essay, intellectual elite were certain it was one of their own: . Essay Chewing! I think our friend Franklin has been principally concerned in the composition, wrote General Horatio Gates to a fellow officer.

Others credited were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (two future presidents of the USA); others thought it was Samuel Adams, who was to become governor of Massachusetts. But it was none of these political luminaries. The author was a recent arrival on montgomery America's shores. His name was Thomas Paine. Born on January 29, 1737, the gum, son of a Quaker father and Anglican mother, Paine lead an interesting and eventful, but ultimately unhappy life in bus essay, England. Twice married (his first wife died when he was twenty-four-years-old.), his career in his homeland was varied: privateer, teacher, preacher, customs officer and narrative about, shopkeeper, he campaigned for better wages for his colleagues, the montgomery, poorly paid excisemen. This latter activity cost him his job as a customs officer, cost him his tobacco shop, and cost him his second wife, who divorced him. The unhappy, disillusioned Paine returned from Lewes, where he had been stationed as an exciseman, to London, where a friend introduced him to an elderly but energetic American, the education, sixty-eight-year-old scientist, writer and statesman Benjamin Franklin. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! Franklin took an distance immediate liking to him and was later to boast that Thomas Paine was his . Bus Essay Montgomery! adopted political son. Sensing that Paine was the sort of writing courses, man who belonged to the America he hoped to build, he urged him to emigrate there.

On November 30 th , 1774, Paine arrived in Philadelphia with a letter of introduction to Franklin's son and son-in-law in his pocket. Paine looked around Philadelphia, the unofficial capital of the American colonies, and liked what he saw: a society of mixed religions and ethnicity, its immigrant workers were spirited and dynamic; they were eager to bus essay seek a better life than that which they had endured in the oppressive regimes of England and the rest of Europe. America breathed new life into him, it inspired him - here was an opportunity to . begin the world anew. It was far from perfect, this new society that Paine had joined: there were inequalities and there were social injustices; many of the richer settlers and landowners behaved just like the letters, English gentry, and worst of all - there was slavery! But these wrongs could be put right. This was a young country peopled by bus essay, many who had themselves fled from squash coursework, various forms of injustice and boycott montgomery, oppression in their own homelands; the ordinary men and women in this new world could, given direction and leadership, make this land the best place in squash ball coursework, the world to live in, and set a shining example for the rest of humanity. And Thomas Paine was determined to point them in the right direction. He was excited to learn that even the boycott, lowest paid workers were already demanding the right to vote in city elections, and there was even talk that the Philadelphia Militia were demanding the right to elect their own officers. Yes - these were people with fire in 500 word, their bellies, these were people capable of shaping their own destiny.

He was in his element when he was offered a job as editor in a new periodical, The Pennsylvania magazine. Along with editing, he was also writing articles for The Pennsylvania and other magazines. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! He railed against slavery: That some desperate wretches should be willing to steal and enslave men by violence and murder for gain, is rather lamentable than strange. Experience! But that many civilized, nay, Christianized people should approve, and be concerned in the savage practice, is surprising. (March 1775). Under his editorship The Pennsylvania became the bus essay montgomery, biggest selling periodical in America. He was on the crest of experience essay, a wave: his own writing was attracting critical acclaim, and Franklin's son-in-law, Richard Bache, was introducing him to some of Philadelphia's leading citizens. Boycott Bus Essay! Then once again things took a turn for the worse: he angered John Witherspoon (the magazine's co-publisher) by editing some of his work. He was obliged to resign and the vindictive Witherspoon slandered him with false allegations that he was a drunkard. Paine did not drink to excess but for essay the rest of his life his many detractors maliciously circulated this false rumour.

But in boycott montgomery, 1775 there were more pressing matters occupying Paine's thoughts: the quarrel between America and Britain had escalated into open warfare with the battles of Lexington and Concord in April, followed by a much bloodier confrontation at Bunker Hill in being kidnapped, June. He concluded that the aims of this dispute must now be changed. It was no longer sufficient to boycott montgomery fight for rights and justice within the framework of the narrative about kidnapped, British Empire; it was time for Americans to sever links with Britain and assert their independence. To this end he set himself the task of writing what was to boycott bus essay become the biggest-selling, most widely read and successful political pamphlet in history: Common Sense. We were blind, but on reading these enlightening words the scales have fallen from our eyes. Executive Letters! Thus wrote a Connecticut reader to the Pennsylvania Post in 1776. To appreciate the impact of Paine's writing it is essential to be aware of the prevailing psychology at the time. It is true that there always were some who had advocated fighting for independence, but they were very much in the minority. Most people throughout all levels of society still wanted to maintain allegiance with Britain. They believed it was parliament, and boycott bus essay montgomery, not ‘good' King George, that was to blame for the unfair taxation that was being imposed upon them. Get rid of these vile ministers and Americans would dwell with respect and dignity under the British constitution as part of the Empire.

George Washington and his fellow officers were still drinking to the King's health; Thomas Jefferson wrote: There is not a man in squash physics coursework, the British Empire who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. Washington, one of the bus essay, richest men in America, and others of his ilk, had every reason to remain locked into embarrassing experience essay the British Empire; they were alarmed by the growing confidence of the boycott bus essay, working-class whom they despised and wished to keep in their place. Statesman Gouverneur Morris referred to the common people as ‘reptiles'. And of ball coursework, course the ordinary people themselves, preconditioned by generations of having loyalty to king and country drilled into bus essay their psyches, were still proud to be British. Then Common Sense struck the continent like an earthquake, its shockwaves shattering the political status quo in every state along the entire East coast of executive cover, America. No longer would his royal majesty be held in such reverence and awe, no longer would the workers and peasants regard the bus essay, aristocracy and the landed gentry of narrative essay being kidnapped, Britain (and America) as their betters. Overnight the people of America had become wide awake to boycott bus essay montgomery reality, and writing courses glasgow, they were demanding the right to rule themselves - total independence! Such was the power of bus essay, Tom Paine's pen. Common Sense was published on narrative essay about being kidnapped January 10, 1776, and the world had seen nothing like it before.

It was the most powerful and persuasive piece of political writing that had ever been produced; its irrefutable logic utterly destroyed the case for the monarchy, the aristocracy and the corrupt system of British government. The demand for the forty-seven-page pamphlet could hardly be met: it sold half a million copies. Considering the size of the population, of which a large proportion could neither read nor write, this made it the biggest seller of all time; relative to today's population the equivalent sales would be 50 million. This was achieved by one man, without any organised political party behind him. One can sense the excitement and growing confidence the American settlers must have felt as Paine demolished the myth of the monarchy, beginning with William the Conqueror - A French bastard landing with an armed banditti, and boycott bus essay montgomery, establishing himself King of England against the consent of the natives. He then went on to belittle . the folly of hereditary right in essay, kings. He argued for the separation of church and state, went on to discuss America's economic, military and naval potential and suggested a framework for American self government. After reading the pamphlet the bus essay, vast majority of working-class Americans, and even many of the social elite, were convinced that complete independence was the only way forward for their country. Paine's achievement was swift, incredible and irreversible.

It gained him immense popularity with ordinary Americans, but made him many bitter enemies among the loyalists and among those who feared the increasing power of the working people. There followed a concerted effort by many of the social elite to attack Common Sense , leading to an intense war of words in the Pennsylvania press between Paine and his many detractors, especially John Adams (not to be confused with John Quincy Adams), who developed a lifelong hatred for him. But now the people's demand for independence could not be stopped. Washington wrote to his secretary, Joseph Reed: . by private letters I have lately received from Virginia, I find ‘Common Sense' is distance education working a powerful change in boycott montgomery, the minds of men. Creative Writing College! On July 4 th , 1776, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. These are the times that try men's souls. That year Paine enlisted in the militia and became aide to General Nathaniel Greene? arguably the best general on either side. Washington was now Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. He was an imposing personality and boycott, was personally brave, but as a field commander he left much to be desired. To his credit he was aware of his shortcomings, and the shortcomings of his militia. He enlisted the essay distance education, Prussian officer Friedrich von Steuben to boycott drill his troops into writing college courses military efficiency and co-opted the boycott bus essay, aid of La Fayette's French army and De Grasse's French fleet to help America's cause.

Astonishingly, considering the availability of an abundance of embarrassing experience essay, expert horsemen, he never developed a cavalry wing to his army. His idea of ‘inspiring' his men was to threaten them with hanging if they showed cowardice in battle, hardly the hallmark of montgomery, a great leader. It was his good fortune that he had an able subordinate in Greene and that his British counterpart, Howe, allowed himself to be distracted from the job in hand by his American mistress. By the end of the year the outlook was bleak for America's cause: Washington's army was in retreat and soldiers were deserting their units every day; Congress had fled from letters, Philadelphia, fearing its occupation by British troops and everyone was anticipating defeat. Everyone except Thomas Paine. In his American Crisis (the first of many with that title) he penned the stirring words that were to fan the flames of American patriotism: These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it NOW, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. The American Crisis sold in boycott bus essay montgomery, tens of creative glasgow, thousands, boosted morale, revived recruitment and turned the tide of battle. Washington ordered his officers to read Crisis to his troops.

The troops listened to Paine's words, crossed the Delaware, routed the Hessian troops and captured Trenton. The situation had been completely turned around. As with Common Sense, Paine never took a penny from the profits of his writing, he gave it all to provide clothing for the troops. Throughout the Revolutionary War he devoted himself tirelessly to the cause, serving in various posts and issuing pamphlets, continuously rousing the flagging morale of the Americans: Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom, must like men, undergo the fatigues of supporting it. When Washington's depleted army was taking refuge in Valley Forge and Congress was questioning his ability to command, it was Paine who came to his defence - a loyalty that was not reciprocated by Washington when Paine later needed his help. He also endeavoured to patch up teething problems in the young and growing nation, advising on territorial disputes, taxation and other matters of government. Totally devoted to America's cause, he even sailed at his own expense on a diplomatic mission to France. On October 19, 1781, the British forces under General Cornwallis were decisively beaten by combined French and American troops. Britain's cloak of invincibility was torn to shreds and boycott bus essay, it was the beginning of the squash coursework, end for boycott bus essay the mighty British Empire. America was the first revolutionary state to defeat a great European power - the war ended with the Treaty of Paris in April, 1783.

The far seeing Paine was still anxious about the creative glasgow, future of the union, realising that many Americans took it too lightly. He feared that some states might, for reasons such as slavery and commerce, decide to break away and montgomery, go it alone: I ever feel myself hurt when I hear the writing college courses, union, that great palladium of our liberty and safety, the boycott, least irreverently spoken of. It is the most sacred thing in the constitution of America. And the declared purpose of the 500 word, ‘Union of the States': To see it in our power to make a world happy, to boycott bus essay montgomery teach mankind the art of essay learning education, being so, to exhibit, on the theatre of the montgomery, Universe a character hitherto unknown. I wonder you did not hang that scoundrel Paine for his blackguard libel on king, lords, and commons.

I suppose the extreme scurrility of the writing college, pamphlet, or the villainy of those who wish to montgomery disperse it among the common people, has carried through so many editions. For it appears to me to have no merit whatever; but it may do mischief in ale-houses in England, and even more in whiskey-houses in embarrassing experience essay, Ireland. I think it by far the montgomery, most treasonable book that ever went unpunished within my knowledge; so, pray, hang the fellow if you can catch him. (Lord Mornington.) The war was over. Thomas Paine had given his all to being the revolution: the boycott, proceeds from his writings had gone to help the war effort and now he was jobless and without an income. He petitioned Congress for a modest pension in acknowledgement of about being, his contribution to boycott bus essay the war's success. He had the support of Franklin, Jefferson and Washington.

But he had also made some powerful enemies and distance learning education, they were not going to make life easy for him. His fight for democracy, his egalitarianism, his zealous opposition to corruption had earned him the implacable enmity and undying hatred of many in the rich, landowning ‘aristocracy' of America. So Congress rejected his petition but agreed to a grant of $3,000 - he would have been much, much richer if he'd kept the proceeds from his writings. Pennsylvania gave him a gift of $500 and New York gave him a farm which had been confiscated from boycott bus essay montgomery, a Tory landowner. He now had breathing space to contemplate his future. As a young man Paine had learned a lot about science and narrative essay being kidnapped, engineering by reading and attending lectures; he decided to put his knowledge to boycott montgomery practical use. Cover! He designed an iron bridge which he believed was safer and more durable than the traditional wooden bridges of his day.

But no one in America was willing to invest in his project so, on Franklin's advice, he sailed for London and Paris to seek backing. He expected to be away for a few months; it was to be sixteen years before he saw his beloved America again. It was 1787, just two years before the bus essay, storming of the Bastille. Physics! Things were changing in France - and in England. In France the poor and the middle-classes were seething with anger at the heavy taxation they suffered while the nobility shared little or none of the burden of running the boycott, country. Soldiers returning from essay distance learning, America spoke of the more just and bus essay, democratic society that was growing in the new republic and this made the French masses determined to account cover build a more just society for themselves. Their anger would soon turn into a terrible, unstoppable rage which would eventually give rise to the ‘reign of terror'.

England at that time was the most industrially advanced and commercially successful nation in the world, but its people paid a terrible price: the boycott bus essay montgomery, momentum of the industrial revolution led to merciless exploitation, inhuman working conditions and a wretched, poverty-stricken existence for the working-class. There was talk on the streets of equality and democratic rights; the squash physics coursework, ruling class were getting nervous. Paine spent two years trying to find investors for his bridge, while inevitably involving himself in the turbulent politics of the times. Then on July 14, 1789, the crowds stormed the Bastille and soon afterwards began invading the great estates of the landowning aristocracy. The next twenty-five years of European history would be written in blood as the ancien regime struggled to maintain the status quo. It was Thomas Paine's dream that the revolutionary zeal which had crossed the Atlantic to France would quickly spread throughout Europe, creating republics in place of monarchies, each republic working in harmony with its neighbours to bus essay montgomery create a humane and civilized Europe - To begin the world anew. The turncoat Edmund Burke, who had originally championed the American Revolution, was now paid by creative writing college courses, the British Government to write Reflections on the Revolution in France , which was to give him the reputation as the father of modern conservatism. Marx was to say of Burke: The sycophant - who in pay of the English oligarchy played the romantic laudatory temporis acti against the French Revolution just as, in the pay of North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles, he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy, was an out and boycott montgomery, out vulgar bourgeois. Burke's condemnation of the French Revolution was considered to be a great success but it really was a wasted exercise: it was aimed at the upper classes and the well educated, preaching loyalty for 500 word essay chewing gum the monarchy and bus essay, the aristocracy. It was preaching to the converted.

And that was the difference between his writing and Paine's. Paine had the ability to communicate with all levels of society, from the poorest to narrative being kidnapped the richest: Burke's Reflections sold 20,000 copies in a year, whereas Common Sense sold several times that in a month. There were many radicals in England who took issue with Burke but, not surprisingly, the most effective reply came from Paine's Rights of Man. Burke's ridiculous argument, that monarchy and the aristocracy had served past generations well (who did he think he was fooling?), and that the present and future generations should perpetuate this tradition, was rubbished by Paine. Burke not only denied that the people of England had the right to choose or reject their own government, but also claimed: That the boycott montgomery, people of England utterly disclaim such a right, and that they will resist the practical assertion of it with their lives and fortunes.

That men should take up arms, and spend their lives and fortunes not to maintain their rights, but to experience essay maintain they have no rights, is an entire new species of discovery, and suited to the paradoxical genius of Mr Burke. The establishment's ‘intellectual champion' was no match for boycott bus essay Paine. He tore apart Burke's arguments with the same irrefutable logic and scathing sarcasm that had defeated so many of his political adversaries in gum, the past. He also encouraged the spirit of revolution in Britain by advocating a system of graduated taxation on the wealthy that would provide child education; pensions for the aged; maternity benefits and other proposals for helping the boycott bus essay, poor and unemployed. He was a man ahead of his time.

But most audacious of all - he defiantly called for the establishment of a British Republic! This was too much - freedom of speech was guaranteed in England of course, but only if you said the 500 word, right things - it was time to hang Tom Paine! On September 14 th , 1792, Paine, who had been elected to the new National Convention in France for the purpose of writing a new constitution, left England on boycott bus essay montgomery a boat bound for squash physics Calais. It was a fortuitous departure: Pitt and his government were poised to vent their wrath upon montgomery, their tormentor, but now he was out of their grasp. In vindictive fury they conducted a witch-hunt, persecuting and imprisoning everyone involved in publishing, selling and in any way promoting Paine's writings. Paine was tried in learning education, his absence and found guilty of seditious libel for boycott bus essay montgomery writing The Rights of narrative about, Man. He arrived in Calais to a hero's welcome and bus essay montgomery, its citizens elected him their representative to cover the new National Convention. These were perilous times for the people of France: surrounded by hostile nations, they were at montgomery, war with Austria and Prussia, and Louis XVI was in prison for colluding with the enemy. The republicans were split into two factions: Girondins (moderates) and Jacobins (radicals).

It was only a matter of time before the creative writing courses, revolution began to devour its own children. At the Convention he and boycott bus essay montgomery, the other delegates voted to experience essay abolish the monarchy and boycott bus essay montgomery, France was declared a Republic. He was then appointed to about kidnapped the committee responsible for boycott montgomery drafting a new constitution. He had friends in both republican factions, but his popularity was not to last. Although Paine loathed the squash ball physics, monarchy he opposed the execution of Louis XVI. He proposed instead that Louis be exiled to America, where he would be unable to meddle in boycott, France's affairs.

He had been sickened by the concept of capital punishment when, as a child growing up in Thetford, he witnessed the horrifying spectacle of poor working-class people who had been hanged for stealing a mere pittance: there was a clear view of Thetford's Gallows Hill from the house he grew up in. But in voting against the death penalty for Louis he angered many Jacobins, especially Robespierre. Cover! And Robespierre was about to come to power. In the ensuing power struggle the Jacobins emerged victorious and showed no mercy to their political opponents; the Reign of montgomery, Terror commenced. On December 28 th , 1793, Paine was arrested. There is no doubt that it would have taken just one word from George Washington to obtain his release, but Washington remained silent: he was keen to resume trade with England and he knew the British establishment wanted to see Paine dead. Business and writing, commerce came before loyalty and friendship to the politically pragmatic Washington. This perfidy must have astonished as well as embittered Paine: Washington had previously been a loyal supporter of bus essay montgomery, Paine and had given him great credit for his part in America's victory over Britain. Equally treacherous was the American Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris. He could have effected Paine's release with little effort, but had no intention of doing so. Morris, who believed that no decent civilization could exist without an aristocracy, would have been delighted to embarrassing essay see Tom Paine's head roll - and it almost did.

In July 1794 Paine was suffering from an almost fatal bout of fever which, ironically, saved his life. The day before he was due to be executed his cell mates asked that the cell door be left open to allow the air to circulate and cool the fever. When the prison officers came to mark the boycott bus essay, cell doors of the condemned prisoners, Paine's door was opened wide, with the inside of the door now facing outwards and the outside face of the door tight against the wall. Education! Because of this the inside of the boycott, door was marked by the prison officers. When the door was closed later that night the ‘condemned' mark was on the inside of the cell and was not seen by the executioners who came to embarrassing collect their victims next morning.

Thus, by sheer chance, Tom Paine missed his appointment with death. Before his execution could be rescheduled his persecutor was overthrown and it was Robespierre's head that tumbled into montgomery the executioner's basket. Creative Glasgow! Some historians claim that Washington did nothing to save Paine because he was unaware of his plight; this is naive, Paine himself had no doubts about boycott bus essay montgomery, Washington's treachery. Squash Ball! He remained imprisoned until Morris was replaced by bus essay montgomery, James Monroe, who obtained his release on November 5 th . Still severely ill, he was looked after by Monroe and his wife at their official residence. Meanwhile, his Age of Reason , published earlier that year, won him no friends. Embarrassing Essay! Paine was by boycott montgomery, this time a Deist, believing in God but not in organized religion. He enraged church leaders by criticizing the bible, saying of the Old Testament: . Distance Education! a history of grossest vices and a collection of the most paltry and contemptible tales.

Referring to the New Testament he described Christ as a virtuous man, a reformer and a revolutionist, but dismissed the bus essay montgomery, Immaculate Conception and Christ's resurrection as fraudulent stories. Narrative Being! Age of Reason gave his enemies all the ammunition they needed to destroy his popularity in that God-fearing age. Relations between Monroe and Paine became strained as a result of Paine's hostility to Washington and in 1796 he moved out of Monroe's house. He wanted to return to America but French ports were being blockaded by the British navy so he moved in montgomery, with the family of Nicolas de Bonneville, writing articles for de Bonneville's paper, Bien Informe. Despite his non-stop political activity he also continued with his passion for engineering, designing canal systems, bridges and cranes. Squash Physics Coursework! Then in 1801 Thomas Jefferson, now president, offered to boycott bus essay bring him back to America, a decision that brought down a torrent of criticism on the president's head from the political opposition. In October 1802, the sixty-five year old Paine arrived in Baltimore to be met by a storm of account, abuse from the Federalist press. Although he still had loyal friends he was faced with widespread hostility wherever he went, but he remained politically active, writing letters criticizing the bus essay montgomery, Federalist opposition and proposing to Jefferson that the United States purchase the Louisiana Territory. In 1803 Margaret de Bonneville and her three sons arrived in account executive letters, America: her husband was under surveillance by the French police and could not leave France, so Paine assumed responsibility for the children's education. Despite his fading health and wealth (he had to sell part of his farm to pay his debts) his pen was in constant use, writing to and for the press on varied subjects.

When Jefferson did buy Louisiana from France in April 1803 for $15,000,000 it was the biggest land deal ever struck between two nations: the Louisiana Purchase stretched east to west from the Mississippi to boycott bus essay the Rocky Mountains, north to college glasgow south from Canada to bus essay montgomery the Mexican Gulf. Learning Education! But Jefferson appalled Paine by allowing the establishment of slavery in the new territory. Bus Essay Montgomery! Bitterly disappointed, he pleaded with the president to permit black families to leave the ‘slave states' and narrative essay being, settle there. But Jefferson rejected his pleas and the curse of slavery was perpetuated until, sixty years later, it tore the country apart. In his final years his condition became pitiful: his health reduced him to a shadow of his once indefatigable self, and he was kept alive by the charity of friends; he was even refused the bus essay montgomery, right to vote on writing courses glasgow the grounds that he was not a true American. This last insult, coming after the treacherous treatment meted out to him by Washington and Morris, must have been devastating: the man who was known as ‘the voice of the revolution', the man who had done more than any man alive to inspire and motivate the people of America to free their young country from the shackles of British imperialism, was turned away at the polling station. He spent his last days in the rented house of the montgomery, de Bonneville family, where he died on the morning of June 8 th , 1809. On his deathbed he was approached by Presbyterian ministers who asked him to accept the Christian Church; defiant to the end, he gave them short shrift. He was buried the next day, with few to mourn him, at letters, his New Rochelle farm, having been refused burial at the Quaker cemetery.

Russell is correct in saying that Paine is less prominent in boycott bus essay, history's hall of fame than most of his less worthy contemporaries: both as a human being and as a contributor to the momentous political events of his time he stood head and shoulders above all of essay distance learning education, them. A tireless seeker of boycott, justice and truth, a dedicated champion of ordinary working people, he was generations ahead of his time in his political thinking. Even his ideas on welfare for the poor, the unemployed and the underprivileged were 150 years before their time. England, Paine's birthplace. But it is not merely his lack of self interest which accounts for account executive cover letters his lack of historical acclaim: since his death there has been a conscious attempt by boycott, the political establishments of Britain and squash physics, the USA to underplay his contribution to 18 th and 19 th century history and to slur his reputation (Theodore Roosevelt called him a ‘dirty little atheist'). His lucid and bus essay montgomery, logical ideas on the governance of nations would still embarrass the corrupt excuses for so-called democratic governments which prevail in the USA, Britain and the rest of Europe today. His anti-clericalism and his criticism of organised religion with all its hypocritical ‘pomp and circumstance' has incurred the indignant wrath of all branches of the religious establishment in Europe and America, and his anti-monarchist views did nothing to endear him to the British establishment. Thus the man who was a household name in America, Britain, Ireland and 500 word essay chewing gum, France in boycott bus essay, his lifetime, and whose fame was more widespread than even Jefferson, Franklin or Washington, has been deliberately shunted into the sidelines of history. True, American presidents occasionally quote him, usually out of context, when it suits them.

But his name will not be found on the list of being kidnapped, Founding Fathers of the USA despite his enormous contribution to the cause of boycott bus essay montgomery, American independence. As for England, there are relatively few today in the land of his birth who have even heard of him. But things are changing: Richard Attenborough recently expressed an embarrassing experience essay ambition to film his life story. In the USA, whenever the people question what their political leaders really stand for, his reputation is experiencing a revival. In Morristown, New Jersey, a monument has been erected to boycott montgomery him; his Common Sense has been listed as number one in historian E.F. Goldman's Books That Changed America ; civil liberties champion professor H.S. Essay! Commager invoked Paine's name in his fight against McCarthyism; Columbia University professor C.W. Mills (who died tragically young) put Paine on a par with Max Weber and Karl Marx. Thomas Paine was a truly great man who used his genius as a writer to fight for a better life for montgomery ordinary working people, a cause to which he dedicated his own life.

No other writer had such a dramatic and immediate impact on the political events of his time. No other man before or since has proved so effectively that words are weapons, and narrative kidnapped, that the pen is indeed mightier than the sword.

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Having a standard format for essay distance, citing sources allows readers to montgomery glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and embarrassing other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. Montgomery! In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in essay learning education, the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.

In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of montgomery, a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to account executive letters learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in montgomery, your project. Complete reference citations are found at squash ball physics the end of a research project. Bus Essay! These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the account letters, sources used in a project. So, full citations for boycott, all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.

Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and essay about kidnapped so on. Montgomery! Scroll down to find the embarrassing, proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. Boycott Montgomery! If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Narrative About! Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of boycott montgomery, text, word for word, from executive cover letters another source and bus essay montgomery include it in their own research projects.

This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. Essay! When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and boycott bus essay montgomery placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from account another source and rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to another piece of information from bus essay montgomery another source, also include an essay about being kidnapped, in-text citation directly following it. Bus Essay Montgomery! In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to 500 word essay chewing gum another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. Bus Essay Montgomery! The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 500 Word Gum! 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation.

According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Montgomery! The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to embarrassing experience help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. Boycott Montgomery! APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project.

These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an account executive, inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Bus Essay Montgomery! M., Last name, F. Gum! M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Montgomery! Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name.

Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. Essay Distance Learning! K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Bus Essay! Directly after the author’s name is the creative writing glasgow, date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and bus essay montgomery only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of college courses, 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically.

When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only bus essay montgomery capitalize the first word of the account letters, title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the montgomery, first letter capitalized. 500 Word Gum! For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of boycott bus essay, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an cover, American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.

For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in bus essay, each word and writing glasgow italicize the title. Boycott! The Seattle Times. Essay! A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and montgomery is part of ball, a larger whole, do not place it in boycott montgomery, italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.

Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in about kidnapped, books, and bus essay articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in about being kidnapped, your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is boycott automatically added for you.

The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and ball country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the boycott, entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and college courses continue with the name of the publisher. It is bus essay montgomery not necessary to include the account executive cover letters, entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and bus essay montgomery other periodicals, include the narrative essay, volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.

The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of bus essay, computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923.

Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the essay learning education, citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. Montgomery! New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more.

For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at experience the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of boycott bus essay montgomery, broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL.

For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. Narrative About Kidnapped! - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over boycott bus essay time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the embarrassing experience essay, basics of APA.

APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.

Print Books with Two or More Authors. Boycott! Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Creative Writing College Courses! (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. Boycott Montgomery! F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of essay kidnapped, Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. Boycott Montgomery! When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for squash coursework, Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Boycott Bus Essay! Middle initial. (Year published).

Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Narrative Essay About Kidnapped! (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.

In S. Narrative About Kidnapped! Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator.

Author Last Name, F. Boycott Bus Essay! I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from essay about http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation.

Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the boycott, “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on creative writing college courses glasgow, “Manual entry mode,” and click the boycott montgomery, “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. Embarrassing Experience! I. (Year Published). Title of article.

Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. Executive Cover Letters! If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used.

Author Last name, F. I. Bus Essay! (Year Published). Title of learning education, article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. Boycott Bus Essay! T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Essay Distance! S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you.

Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Montgomery! Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the essay distance education, date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of boycott bus essay, article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.

You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of creative glasgow, Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. Boycott Bus Essay! (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December).

The man who wasn’t Darwin. Writing Courses! National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. Montgomery! (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from creative writing courses glasgow URL.

Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from boycott bus essay http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). Ball Physics! (Year aired).

Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Essay Distance Education! City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of bus essay montgomery, cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix.

If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. About Being! (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. Boycott! (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Writing College Courses Glasgow! (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to boycott montgomery use personal (unpublished) interviews in distance, your reference list.

Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an boycott bus essay, in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the 500 word essay chewing gum, following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Boycott! Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text.

Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the education, name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the montgomery, recording artist, leave out the creative college glasgow, bracketed information located after the bus essay, name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the writing college courses, performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012).

Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Squash Physics! (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx).

English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). Boycott! (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Creative Writing Glasgow! Retrieved from URL.

Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of boycott bus essay, posting).

Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from about being URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the montgomery, form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.

Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. Essay Distance Education! When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and boycott choose “Title Page” at essay the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles.

A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery! Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.

Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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Custom Brazil essay paper writing service. Brazil is one of the countries that show stable and boycott bus essay montgomery rapid growth in their promising development. It has a dramatic history of the efforts to build a new country with decent future. This research study discusses the important domestic task of the Brazilian administration. It highlights the position of the country in the 20 th century. It embraces all the movements and political events that took place within the country in the years of experience essay, economical and social decrease. It also tells about boycott bus essay montgomery great achievements that were made by the country at the beginning of the 21 st century. It illustrates the country’s road to development through proper measures taken by its president Lula. The paper discusses the attempt of modernization policy, which also contributed to embarrassing essay increase of Brazil’s international prestige. Position of Latin America. It may be the true that Latin America is experiencing one of the most fascinating phases in its history.

We can state this because the continent witnesses constant economic and boycott stable growth.. Latin America stepped onto the path of modern economic growth in the second half of the 20 th century. In general, that time was a period of unprecedented political stability. South American countries have been able to embarrassing experience found their own requirements that meet a specific model of the development. Boycott? The result of this process was as follows: the countries of ball physics, Latin America have strengthened their independence; conducted the reforms in agriculture; established the right direction of the export industry, and displaced the montgomery, imported goods; created new modern social and economic infrastructures; improved the macroeconomic regulations; managed to mobilize their own resources. Narrative Essay Being Kidnapped? Moreover, they applied the montgomery, practice of the countries with high developed economy to local experiences.

It was achieved by the wide use of the chewing gum, capital and technologies offered by boycott bus essay, developed countries. Each country specializes in the export of one or two raw materials and products, which directly affects its welfare. Ecuador exports oil and bananas, Bolivia - tin and natural gas, Colombia coffee and oil, Peru - ferrous metals, Venezuela - oil, Chile copper and fruit, Argentina - meat, wool, and essay wheat, Brazil - iron ore, coffee, cocoa, and soy (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). The industrial development in boycott Latin America has been linked mainly to mining. Also, the production of environmentally unsound and labor-intensive minerals and raw materials has been moved from the chewing gum, developed countries to Latin America. For example, there are major copper smelters in Chile, factories that enrich tin ore and montgomery smelters that produce tin in courses Bolivia, as well as oil refineries in Venezuela. In countries all over Latin America, the leading sector of the economy is combined with a backward agriculture. Montgomery? Despite rapid economic growth, the countries still have a big external debt, which defines the dependent position of the whole continent in the world economy and leads to the situation when economic inequalities create intense social conflicts. Brazil in the 20th Century. Only two countries have managed to build a relatively diverse industry. Brazil is one of them.

It managed to develop the account executive cover, automobile and even the aviation industry. Brazil has provided its citizens with the nuclear power plants, it produces computers and military equipment. Brazil is a great example of the country of boycott bus essay montgomery, Latin America that has taken all necessary measures for raising the country from the poverty to leadership in South America and globally. Brazil as a Country with a Huge Stock of Raw Materials. The formation of the world order is accomplished not only by developed nations. Countries which are not included into the world elite, but are growing rapidly are capable of exerting the 500 word essay gum, international influence. Brazil is the South American leader that has applied for a new role in the global economy and politics. Its economic dynamics and boycott montgomery international hyperactive evidence this. Brazil is a strong leadership in Latin America. Distance Learning Education? Lula, who won the title of world's most popular president, focuses on montgomery interaction with other rising giants.

However, the ball coursework, socio-economic position of Brazil was not always as we know it today. It came through different reforms and struggles. Throughoutthe 20 th century, Brazil was looking for solutions in its development. The country with a huge stock of boycott montgomery, raw materials and a great potential found proper solutions only at the turn of the 20 th and 21th centuries. Brazil in the First Half of the 20th Century. The great influence on the development of the Brazil’s economy had the World War I, in which Brazil participated on the side of the Entente since 1917. The growth of the industry in the country was encouraged by the lack of industrial goods and difficulty of obtaining them from abroad. After the World War I, middle and lower urban strata became more involved in the political life of the country. At that time, there were first major strikes and demonstrations of the urban proletariat. Those years were characterized by activity of the widespread political movement organized by embarrassing experience essay, the middle and junior officers. They campaigned against the economic and political authority of the traditional oligarchy.

The Lieutenants Uprising took place in 1922, which was during the period of the oligarchic republic. It did not lead to any significant changes in the social structure of Brazil. Yet, it was a warning. Eventually, the ruling oligarchy could not withstand the bus essay montgomery, severe crisis of global capitalism in 1929. As a matter of fact, the sharp decline in ball the economic activity was brought by the economic crisis of 1929-1933. The economic crisis led to further aggravation of the social and political contradictions. In October 1930, as a result of the armed rebellion, Liberal Alliance came to power. It was supported mainly by boycott, the bourgeoisie and middle strata of the state. Getulio Vargas Dornellas became the President and kept the position of the Alliance until 1945. By 1940, the industrial production had increased very significantly, but coffee production declined.

Yet, in cover letters order to save the interests of the old oligarchy, the government invested heavily in the production of coffee, which continued to be the main export product of Brazil. During the World War II, the Brazilian industry obtained the further growth and development. The population of the country greatly increased. The proportion of people living on wages increased as well. After the World War II, the montgomery, regime of personal dictatorship of Vargas was destroyed by the raise of the democratic movement.

Shortly after this, political parties were re-established and parliamentary and presidential elections were held. In 1946, a new constitution of the writing courses glasgow, liberal-democratic character was adopted. Social Movements and Political Events after the World War II. In the 1950s, Brazil intensified the process of substitution of imported goods by local production. The import was difficult because of the lack of currency. Boycott? The country managed to create and sustain the development of such industries as automotive, electrical, and electronic. The huge step was done in experience essay the manufacture of boycott montgomery, energy, civil construction, and road construction .A new capital of the country, Brasilia, was built. On the one hand, Brazil had a stable and quick development of its infrastructure and industry.

On the other hand, the development of the economy to a large extent was due to foreign investment, and was accompanied by a huge rise in the external debt. In turn, the domestic investment was low, which generated inflation. Experience Essay? All these events and inadequate actions by the government have contributed to the aggravation of class contradictions of the Brazilian society and constant growth of social tension. In the country, mass political movements were organized, where the most active position was taken by bus essay montgomery, trade union. Youth also did not want to stand aside from the events within the country. Student leagues and other organizations were seeking to exert greater influence on political decisions. Essay Gum? The nationalist movement that fought for social and economic reforms got popular, too.

The country was filled with the internal political struggles. As a result, the country faced the change of the authority under the boycott montgomery, military force. A new political regime, led by the military person, came to power. Brazil in the Second Half of the 20th Century. Since the middle of the squash ball physics, 70s, the process of liberalization in politics was gradually gaining strength. During that process, the country saw the recovery of political rights. political refugees were allowed to come back.

The pressure increased from people who demanded the return of boycott montgomery, democracy. As a result, governors were elected by direct vote in 1982. It was a beginning of the policy based on democratic values. Additionally, a wave of demonstrations in support of the direct presidential elections took place. “Brazil has experienced significant changes in the twentieth century (involving industrialization, urbanization, the integration of previously isolated regions, and patterns of demographic change dominated by the population movements), but also confronts historical continuity in embarrassing the form of trenchant social inequalities” (Davila, Sachs, Wilheim, Pinheiro, 2009). The organized civil society of the middle class and students played a critical role in the process of the significant changes in the Brazil. They made the contribution to montgomery the living spirit of the country’s life. The population began to hope that politics and power can be ethical. They expected great changes.

Brazil at the End of the 20th and at the Beginning of 21st Centuries. Brazil Has a Special Place on the International Scene. Today, Brazil is completely different from the country that we knew in the 20 th century. Brazil is one of the countries that have a special place on essay about the international scene. Boycott Bus Essay Montgomery? Brazil’s natural and human resources, its level of economic development , as well as its science and technology equal those found in the leading countries of the new world system that has developed in the 21 st century. Moreover, it has a decent place among developed countries in the interaction of the regional and global affairs. However, the purposeful tendency of narrative essay about kidnapped, Brazil in boycott the world trade, and in economic and political space has been a relatively recent phenomenon, attributed to deep inner transformation and changes that have occurred in the last two decades.

It is the economic and political changes that ensured the rise and modernization of the country. The latter has become possible due to 500 word essay gum application of many measures. Above all, this result has been brought by boycott montgomery, active participation of the country in creation of the modern architecture of international economic and financial relations. Brazil, a country with a great potential, has woken up. The country did it in the geo-economic and geopolitical sense. A lot of facts evidence the success of the being kidnapped, development of the country. It holds the firm position on the key issues of world politics. It has strong relationship with other countries of Latin America and participation in boycott the Great Twenty. It maintains fruitful cooperation with other potential countries characterized with rapid development such as Russia, India, and China. Achievements of Brazil in the Last Century. Brazil had a lot of achievements during the last century.

They were mixed with the positive and negative consequences for the country. However, the country achieved its most significant success in the period between 2003 and2010. It was during the period of presidency of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. He established clear goals for the development of his country. The president said that by 2020 Brazil would be, as a minimum, the fifth economy in narrative essay about kidnapped the world (Brainard Martinez-Diaz, 2009). Boycott Bus Essay? This defines the 500 word chewing, vector and sets guidelines for the further ascent of the Brazilian State. The great results and output of the current country’s achievements as a new stage of the development were not fast and simple. The time period over bus essay montgomery, 500 years of this country’s existence was full of squash ball physics coursework, social upheavals and boycott bus essay economic failures. By the account cover letters, end of the 20 th century, the outcomes of those events had led to the formation of a difficult situation in which the country faced profound economic imbalances, mass poverty, total corruption, and extreme social inequality.

All of those were accompanied by political instability. However, after those internal problems and dramatic events, the modernization process started that produced tangible positive results for the country over a short period of time. Brazil’s Way to the Economic Growth. The recent success in economics of the country is the result of the transition to a model with the open economy and structural reforms since the early 1990s. It is also necessary to note that the country made significant transformation in the direction towards modernizing its entire economic mechanism.

As a result of the macroeconomic strategic decisions, the bus essay, national economy has not only got rid from the essay about, uncontrolled inflation, but also acquired a new dimension and quality. It is important to select the main structural changes that have taken place in the last two decades and have shaped the modern look of the Brazilian economy. In 1997-2000, the core of the economic transformation was the privatization of the most inefficient state enterprises. Brazil was ranked first in the world in the amount of income derived from the transfer of state property into private hands. The biggest act of privatization in Latin America was privatization of the telephone company that brought to the treasure 19 billion dollars (Brainard Martinez-Diaz, 2009). It was the third large privatization in the world. Development of Different Branches of Industry. There was a significant increase in montgomery the role of the advanced manufacturing industry.

It was a result of the efficient government policy. The government rightfully identified and supported the essay learning education, strategic direction of development in the sphere of production of capital goods, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, and bus essay montgomery software. Special attention was paid to the improvement of technological culture production. Essay About Being Kidnapped? By the bus essay montgomery, end of the first decade of this century, the local production provided 90% of the demand for industrial products, including more than 80% for machinery and equipment. There was a rapid development of the high-tech industry, in particular aircraft building. The Embraer is the third largest aircraft manufacturer. It is smaller only to such great corporations as Boeing and account Airbus. The significant position was occupied by the mining industry. The country is the world's first producer of boycott bus essay, iron ore.

It has large reserves of manganese and tantalum. As a matter of fact, the weak point of the national economy was the energy sector. The solution to this problem was found by diversifying energy sources and increasing the embarrassing experience, energy resource base. The development of the new oil fields is going to play a key role in boycott bus essay the further development of the experience, country. Brazil became the record for boycott, deep-water drilling and makes the production at a depth of up to essay distance learning 3 thousand meters. According to bus essay the statement of essay chewing, Lula, Brazil has discovered oil reserves that contain approximately 50 billion barrels. Through such development of the country, it may become one of the boycott bus essay, world leaders in the future, as well as the largest producer and exporter of ball physics coursework, hydrocarbons.

One of the main advantages of Brazilian economy is a highly developed and diversified agricultural sector. Since 1991, when there was a liberalization of prices for basic agricultural commodities, agricultural production has been growing at a steady pace. Global Trade and Social Development. Measures of the Government to Support and Promote Agriculture. It should be noted that the government has taken serious measures to bus essay montgomery support and promote agriculture. Ball Physics Coursework? It devised a program of agricultural credit on favorable terms.

Specific progress has been made in the cultivation of bus essay montgomery, soybeans. The collection of soybeans has increased four times for the last two decades. This result is second only to that in the USA. Other impressive results were achieved in production of poultry, beef, citrus and other products. Now, the country covers their food need through the domestic production at 92% (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). This percentage trend is going to grow up.

Brazil has become intone of the leaders of the world’s producers and exporters of food. The country has become one of the guarantors of global food security. Involvement of the Country in the International Trade. The important feature of the chewing, restructuring of the Brazilian economy is a significantly increased value of boycott, foreign trade in national development strategies. 500 Word Essay? The liberal economic reforms of the 1990s coincided with the process of globalization. The country became involved in the international trade and economic exchanges, and was forced to adapt to the strict requirements of the global market. This meant that an intelligent and efficient export promotion policy was needed for boycott montgomery, the compensation of the inevitable growth of import purchases. The President of the essay, country announced that the growth of the foreign trade was a strategic priority in its macroeconomic policies. The authorities have significantly reduced the number of clearly excessive regulations on export activities in order to simplify the boycott bus essay montgomery, trade (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). Attention of the Authorities to the Urgent Social Problems.

The characteristic feature of the coursework, President Lula’s activity is the attention of authorities to the urgent social problems. Since 2003, the program whose main goal is to fight hunger has been implemented. The realization of this program is very important for the country. The authorities of the country remember that at the beginning of this century about a third of Brazilian population had lack of food. Half of rural residents had incomes less than one dollar per boycott bus essay montgomery, day. The situation was particularly unreasonable due to about being the success of the Brazilian agriculture and increase of the boycott montgomery, food exports.

The presence of large hunger, poverty and misery in the country divided the nation into two opposing parts. The aforementioned economic chasm generated blatant social inequality, excluded the tens of millions of account cover, Brazilians out of the market economy, and caused mass crime. This is why the fight against hunger was written into the general policy of the national security and was seen as a necessary tool to promote the country on the path of boycott bus essay, economic and social progress. This program does not mean the usual distribution of food. It has a comprehensive and multi-level nature, necessary for changing the face of Brazil and creative writing courses glasgow includes three groups of social projects. There were developed programs that were aimed to directly support the bus essay montgomery, most vulnerable families. They included the organization of alternative channels of selling products to needy citizens, providing a minimum rent, free school meals, and the establishment of consumer cooperatives.

Measures were taken to provide access to the education and health care; eliminate illiteracy; improve pensions and decrease the unemployment rate among the poor and needy (Havighurst, 2008). The growing economic power of Brazil has allowed it to speak at regional and global levels in a stronger position and essay learning education clearly claim to a significant role in global affairs. Now, there are many reasons to talk about the new geo-economic and boycott bus essay geo-political parameters of the international positioning of the Brazilian State. One of the key political challenges of the country is the consolidation of South American Nations. Creative College Glasgow? The prime goal is to deepen the bilateral relations with neighboring countries and strengthen the development of effective regional institutions that can enhance the boycott, centripetal tendencies.

It is necessary for the government of the country to give a new impetus to the integration process and to increase the influence of Latin America on the world stage. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.