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bfa thesis examples Advanced design seminar in which students develop a sustained individual project in a major area of good thesis on stereotypes, concentration (print, Internet, multimedia). This semester-long project is designed to encourage extended development and the synthesis of communication skills and related design disciplines. The final requirement for BFA graduation, the of interviews thesis project will be presented in good on stereotypes an exhibition and in essay written presentation to faculty. Prereq: completion of all major requirements for the BFA. 6 cr./6 hr. Good Thesis On Stereotypes? The Thesis should represent a significant body of purity of heart essays, independent creative work. It can take many different forms or combinations of forms: print, publication, Web, interactive multimedia, or animation.
The specifics will vary greatly from project to project. • to formulate a personal creative research project in good an area of students’ interest. Syllabus may be revised during the semester depending on purity essays on the buddhist path the needs of the good course. You must pass the 10th week review to continue in Thesis. INCOMPLETES ARE NOT GIVEN IN THESIS. A passing grade in study Thesis is good on stereotypes A or B ONLY. quality of concept, 20% visual design, 30% execution of design and installation 30% written and oral communications 10% professionalism, 10% [participation in essay class, meeting deadlines, communications] Any act of academic dishonesty will be dealt with by applying the most stringent penalties permitted. Cheating includes but is good thesis not limited to receiving help during exams and submitting homework without properly acknowledging persons who assisted you. Statement on Academic Integrity, The CUNY Policy on Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the act of analysis, presenting another person’s ideas, research or writings as your own. The following are some examples of plagiarism, but by no means is it an exhaustive list: Copying another person’s actual words without the use of quotation marks and footnotes attributing the words to their source.
Presenting another person’s ideas or theories in your own words without acknowledging the good on stereotypes source. Using information that is not common knowledge without acknowledging the write harvard additional source. Failing to acknowledge collaborators on good thesis on stereotypes homework and laboratory assignments. Internet plagiarism includes submitting downloaded term papers or parts of term papers, paraphrasing or copying information from the internet without citing the essay for kids source, and “cutting and pasting” from various sources without proper attribution. The City College Faculty Senate has approved a procedure for addressing violations of academic integrity. Planning begins the semester before the Thesis semester when the student proposes a project.
It’s essential that the student start the Thesis semester with a clearly defined concept. Your project proposal must be approved before the start of the Thesis semester. At the first class meeting, we will discuss your project proposal. For week two, the good thesis proposal should be expanded to at least 2 pages and purity of heart essays, more fully describe the project. It should include: an expansion of the proposal into a fully detailed description of the on stereotypes project. Jim Jones Essay? [abstract + proposal] outline of the proposed research, reference/source material and reading list or URLs examples of the ideas informing and methods of achieving your proposed research description of media, materials and technical processes involved outcomes envisioned: what might be the final production pieces? images, diagrams, or other supporting materials consider the current design context of their proposed project. CLEARLY describe your concept, possible design styles and alternate approaches and include reference materials/inspirations.
In the research stage, the student collects material that is relevant to the project; this includes both content research and design research. Research material can be drawn from books, magazines, web sites, videos, films, DVD/CD-ROMs, exhibition documentation, etc. Keep notes and document the research process; this documentation will become part of your archive. Thesis projects are expected to show a high degree of good thesis on stereotypes, originality. Students are expected to shoot their own photographs (where possible) and entirely create the graphic elements of their projects. **You must credit your sources in writing, in harvard your proposal and documentation book. See the College plagiarism policy for penalties for handing in work that's not your own. Students will develop a designed visual template for both text and good, sketch documents, so that all materials have a consistent appearance. Students are expected to document all stages of the Thesis project; i.e. to format at presentation quality, sketches, notes, research elements, concept descriptions for jim jones essay, later inclusion in the Thesis book. All notes, sketches, templates etc. should have your name, the good date and a version number. The design stage occurs in conjunction with the above research. The student makes sketches and drafts that explore different facets of the design project.
Students are expected to present multiple alternative concepts/solutions and be prepared for extensive revision. At the 10th week of the semester, students’ work-to-date will be reviewed. At this stage, any student who has not made significant progress on their Thesis project will be dropped. Planning for case study report, the BFA exhibition will begin at this point. Some time around mid-semester, students move to the production phase of the project.
This will include executing the good approved designs, dealing with technical and integration issues, and beginning the final assembly of the Thesis materials. The Thesis project is completed, and final portfolio is submitted on analysis of interviews the 15th week. Projects will be exhibited in a student-organized BFA exhibition on dates indicated. Thesis has an extensive writing component, including the proposal, case studies, text for web site, animations or other production pieces. All text must be clearly written, grammatical and free of proofreading errors. CORPORATE IDENTITY or ADVERTISING: at least 12 different completed designs, ads or collateral material. Poster design projects should include at least 8 design components. BOOK or MAGAZINE DESIGN: at least 15 pages of content. Projects must be fully printed and bound. WEB PROJECTS: incorporate a range of different media (images, animation, sound, scripting, interactivity), over at least 12 pages or screens.
Web projects must be fully functional on-line, either through our web server, or from an outside web site provider. Good Thesis? INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA PROJECTS: for interactive projects, include a range of media (as for Web projects), extending over at least 15 screens. Interactive multimedia projects must be presented on Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM and be fully tested and jim jones essay, functional. They must include cover graphics and user instructions and must be cross-platform, i.e. work on both Mac and PC. ANIMATION AND DIGITAL VIDEO PROJECTS, 3D: for motion graphics or animation projects, develop at good thesis, least 3-5 minutes of should write additional essay, original video material. Good Thesis On Stereotypes? For 3D projects: sketches of for act, models, storyboard, script/storyline, examples of painted textures, sound, prints of good thesis on stereotypes, rendered frames, 1 minute animation with titles. Presented either on Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM, or as streaming video.
All screen-based projects should include collateral materials: DVD/CD cover graphics, poster, screen prints, labels, accompanying brochure or other items TBA. Jim Jones Essay? Documentation of project materials: All projects must include documentation of the entire work process, including written proposals and briefs, sketches, page or screen templates, grids, storyboards and final pieces. Documentation will be in book form AND on Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM. Each student must submit 8 [color-corrected and edited] photos of their thesis installation [shot int he gallery while the exhibition is on. Design a document template that includes your name, date of item, version/revision number. [Week 1 project] Assignment sheets are given out each week. For previous weeks, go to the website. Thesis On Stereotypes? first thesis proposal initial research design of company case report, page format.
See Writing References [Thesis Paper Style Guides, Articles on Writing, Copyright] revision of thesis proposal inspiration page first sketches. second sketches writing workshop. Thesis? THURSDAY SCHEDULE ON TUESDAY. final thesis brief third sketches. NO CLASS SEPTEMBER 21. fourth sketches production schedule. production planning revise roughs, process sketches. additional design revisions start production. list of thesis elements production continues. A significant body of purity of heart, work must be completed by week 10 or students will be asked to on stereotypes drop Thesis. Last day to withdraw is 4/19. installation layout start final printing/fabrication. outline final thesis paper continue printing/fabrication. NO CLASS NOVEMBER 23. LAST CLASS, FINAL CLASS PRESENTATIONS. archive book of the thesis process, containing the abstract, documentation, prints and Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM. and include all of your final project files. For Kids? [this is separate from any book design in your exhibition] installation of Thesis work at good thesis, the BFA show. completion of the written Thesis. submit 8 [color-corrected and edited] installation photos of your project in harvard additional the gallery.
Final Production and Gallery Installation. INSTALL: Saturday December 9th, 11 am. EXHIBITION: Monday, December 11-Friday, December 15th, 2017. RECEPTION: Thursday, December 14th, 5-8pm. FINAL THESIS PAPER due by email: Thursday, December 14th. DEINSTALL Friday, December 16th, 11am, all documentation due. Good On Stereotypes? Students must prepare and submit a portfolio presenting the results of the Thesis project. Portfolio components include: Minimum 8 page written project summary which will include: a statement of the Thesis goals/purpose a description of how those goals were pursued an should additional assessment of the final results. Thesis On Stereotypes? a critical discussion of historical and/or contemporary examples relevant to the project should also be included. The Thesis images should be high-quality prints that either document the project or are the product of the Thesis project.
The nature of these images will depend on the kind of project undertaken. If the Thesis is dissertation analysis a web or multimedia project, then the images document the project, and they should consist of screen shots from different parts of the project together with short written descriptions. If the Thesis is good a print project, then the images themselves are the Thesis. In this case, they may be presented in jim jones essay a separate portfolio at a size that is appropriate to thesis the project. These images should provide a clear presentation of the Thesis project. Analysis Of Interviews? The research and development material should document what the student did during the preparation of the Thesis project. Research material could include print-outs of relevant web sites, photocopies of book pages, magazine tear sheets, and reference images. Development material should include sketches and design drafts that were produced during the production process. It’s important to thesis document the stages of your project through a series of progressive design sketches.
The Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM should contain electronic versions of the Thesis material. Jim Jones Essay? Contents will vary based on the kind of Thesis project undertaken If the thesis Thesis is a web or multimedia project, then the Flash drive/DVD/CD-ROM files are the case report distribution media for the Thesis. For a print project, the Flash drive or DVD/CD is an archival record of your files. If the project is a print project, then the disk should include source files and reference images. It is not necessary to thesis turn in every file or sketch, just final versions of the important ones. The disk should have cover graphics, be tested for errors and should be fully ready for use. Take eight  installation photos of your project in the gallery, and include them in your book and on the DVD/CD. Make sure they are color-corrected and retouched as needed. Purity Essays Buddhist Path? You can borrow equipment [lights, tripod, camera] if needed from the DOC checkout.
All of the good on stereotypes materials should be presented together in a folder. We prefer a black Itoh-type book with clear plastic sleeves that can hold letter-sized sheets. Be sure to design the spine of your book and essay for kids, include a cover sheet with your name, the date and title for your project. Certain projects may call for other formats, such as large-format prints or 3D formats. PRESENTATION FORMATbinder folder with: plastic sleeves cover graphics for thesis on stereotypes, folder and CD inkjet prints of weekly presentations showing the sony company study development of the project installation drawings list of thesis elements production schedule 8 installation photos Enclosing envelope if there are items that aren't contained in the plastic sleeves. Students must archive their project by providing EDM with a copy of the thesis book + digital files. No grade will be awarded without this documentation. Thesis? http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/05/ Purdue University MLA Citatons Guide, also see the link for electronic sources. montecin/copyright-internet.htm Intro to company report copyright for thesis, the Web. maxb/ftf1964.htm First Things First manifesto. Scoring Essay? http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/graphic-design-theory Need for good thesis on stereotypes, theory in graphic design. Also see the essay for kids case studies under ‘Professional Resources’ and articles in the ‘Society Environment’ section. jsa3/hum355/readings/berger.htm Extract from John Berger's Ways of Seeing. bit.ly URL What is Research Design [pdf] from thesis a social research perspective.
Branding Style Guides. Or google: images branding mockup. Jim Jones Essay? Using Photography in Branding. Data Visualization and Information Design. Good? http://www.typechart.com Tool for visualizing type choices. http://www.typetester.org Another tool for visualizing type choices. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/10/07/retro-and-vintage-in-modern-web-design/ CSS Smashing Magazine article on Retro design; also in scoring for act PDF in on stereotypes class handouts.
Reference for the Retro project. http://psdtuts.com/category/tutorials/ Tutorials, including for Grunge and 80's retro; also see 'Freebees' section for textured patterns. Also see 'tutorials' on Smashing Magazine for special tutorials on grunge, retro, textures and pattern effects.
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open essay As the on stereotypes UN considers its position on child labour, a global group of experts lay out the case against a universal minimum age. Blanket bans cannot prevent exploitation, only more nuanced approaches do that. Working boys learning new skills. Author: Richard Carothers. On January 27 th 2016, Beyond Trafficking and Slavery published an open letter by a global group of academics and child rights practitioners calling on for act, the UN Committee on the Convention on the Rights of the Child to avoid binding the proposed ‘General Comment on the Rights of Adolescents’ to on stereotypes, the ILO Minimum Age Convention (No.
138) or the minimum age standards set out in that convention. Their letter was motivated by should harvard, decades of research that show minimum age legislation to harm the interests of working children. In response to the public dialogue that this open letter engendered – including a letter from and further response to Human Rights Watch – representatives of the academic-activist group traveled to Geneva to meet with Committee members and provide them with more information about children and work. Subsequently the group were invited to prepare and submit a formal argument based on human rights principles that explains how ILO Convention 138 does not comply with the Declaration of Human Rights or with the Convention of the Rights of the Child. We reproduce the full text of this argument below. Why general minimum-age prohibitions on employment are incompatible with basic principles of good on stereotypes human and children’s rights. This note has four parts.
First, we argue that accountability to children means that attention to of heart essays buddhist, the reality of children’s condition and lives is core to the Committee’s mandate Second, we detail specific ways in which ILO C.138 does not comply with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the CRC Third, we explain why, when ILO C.138 or other conventions conflict with the UDHR or CRC, the UDHR and CRC should have precedence And finally we provide recommendations for the initiation of a process aiming to bring ILO conventions 138 and 182 in on stereotypes, line with the CRC. I. Accountability to children means that attention to the reality of children’s condition and lives is core to the Committee’s mandate. Article 43 of the UNCRC establishes the Committee on the Rights of the Child for dissertation of interviews the purpose of examining the progress made by on stereotypes, States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention”. This use of the word “realization” makes clear that the Committee’s mandate necessarily involves direct accountability to analysis, children, as manifested through its obligation to ensure fulfilment of the good on stereotypes articles and principles embodied in company case study report, the CRC. Good? Such accountability goes beyond scrutiny of policies, legal norms and standards to focus on essay on space, their impact on children’s lives, in all cases ensuring that children’s rights and best interests prevail. Good On Stereotypes? Accountability to children necessitates a child-centred perspective. Where necessary, achieving this principle may mean overriding both pressures from, or the interests of, other parties, along with international treaties and jim jones essay, instruments that are not in conformity.
Some have argued that distorting the original child well-being and development intents of the CRC to benefit the particular agenda of a given government agency or other organization itself constitutes a form of exploitation that violates UNCRC Article 36. In the thesis case of children’s work, a child-centred perspective entails recognition and facilitation of work that is developmental and beneficial to children’s wellbeing and social integration as well as protection from work that is case study detrimental. Thesis? This makes it important to consider potential work hazards in the context of a wider assessment of children’s situation, the social and developmental value placed on their work, the alternatives available to jim jones essay, them and their families, as well as their realistic long-term prospects. Good Thesis On Stereotypes? It means nurturing and not undermining the resilience children show in very difficult circumstances, respecting the dignity and pride they gain from supporting themselves and their families and not inadvertently dismantling the important protective and dissertation analysis of interviews, enabling structures that children depend on. In defining detrimental work, Article 32 of the CRC cites the right of the child ‘to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development’. Good On Stereotypes? Addressing hazardous and exploitative work undertaken by children of purity essays path all ages is therefore the good on stereotypes priority. Safe and appropriate work in line with children’s development is sanctioned in various articles of the CRC.
Article 29 , which refers to education directed to purity essays on the, the development of the on stereotypes child's personality, talents, and jim jones essay, mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential, is not restricted to formal schooling but also allows for informal learning of life, pro-social and emotional skills through work in familial and community contexts. Children themselves often refer to their work as providing nutrition (physical development), skills (mental development), opportunity to express compassion (the key attribute associated with spiritual development), help to the family in solidarity with parents and siblings (the essence of moral development) and social knowledge and connections (social development). Further, children's participation in good on stereotypes, the household economy is an integral feature of child rearing in many indigenous and ethnic minority cultures in particular, and thus conserving safe and appropriate work as a right is entirely consistent with Article 30 . The right to undertake work that enhances children’s development and wellbeing is harvard essay also enshrined in Article 27 , which recognizes the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's mental, spiritual, moral, and social development. If parents and families cannot alone provide this standard of living, and States Parties do not provide it, then the child, by default, has the right to help achieve such a standard. Article 32 endorses this principle in thesis on stereotypes, highlighting the right to protection against work that is harmful to of interviews, these same dimensions of children’s development; the corollary being that work NOT harmful in those dimensions and in alignment with the good rights provided in Article 27 is both acceptable and should harvard additional, indeed beneficial. Thus, the rationale underlying articles 27 and 32, taken together, is that children have both a right to this broad-based development plus a right not to have it undermined by harmful work. In further pursuance of children’s right to work, Article 5 provides scope and legitimacy for good thesis parents in deciding on and supervising the work of their children, which can have economic, learning and protective motives. Article 15 confers on working children the right to organize and for act essay, put pressure on trade unions to accept, include and defend them as workers or, in thesis on stereotypes, the absence of formal trade union membership, to form their own organizations. Accordingly, if there is insufficient legal reason to intervene in children's lives to ban them from working, then such unwarranted intervention may be regarded as constituting arbitrary or unlawful interference, which is prohibited under Article 16.
II. Specific ways in jim jones essay, which C.138 does not comply with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the CRC. When considering the appropriateness of good thesis on stereotypes including reference to ILO C.138 in the General Comment, the key question is whether, or the extent to which, C.138 complies with the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and dissertation of interviews, the CRC (particularly the Preamble, General Principles and good thesis on stereotypes, Article 32, but also other articles as indicated above). Similarly, it is important to ask whether C.138 is more protective of children than ILO C. 182, which addresses the Worst Forms of company Child Labour. ILO C.182, which was drafted after the UNCRC came into force, explicitly took the UNCRC into account, whereas C.138 preceded the on stereotypes UNCRC and does not. Convention C.138 differs from the ILO’s earlier minimum-age conventions in one fundamental respect. Having been mandated in 1919 to impose “such limitations on write harvard essay, the labour of young persons as shall permit the on stereotypes continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development” , the ILO conventions prior to C.138 targeted specific employment sectors thought to be harmful or hazardous to children: large-scale industry (1919), employment at dissertation of interviews sea (1920), large-scale agriculture (1921) and so on. These Conventions did not aim to exclude children from all forms of work, or earning money. C.138 in contrast imposes a minimum age (15) for admission to “employment or work in good on stereotypes, any occupation”. Although C.138 allows for children to undertake “light work”, this is supposed to be specifically designated and governments rarely attend to jim jones essay, this kind of detail, more often instituting a total ban.
Light work is sanctioned for good only two years below the age at which school is compulsory, automatically excluding younger children who could benefit from such work. In many parts of the world work contributes directly to children’s development, as we have indicated. Learning values and participating in cultural activities through work generally starts at a much younger age than C.138 allows, accommodating children’s natural propensity to mimic and join in family work as part of their own developmental initiatives. The view of ILO and others that C.138 (and national laws and write harvard additional essay, regulations complying with it) is the most effective means of protecting children rests on the assumption that younger children are inherently more vulnerable to thesis on stereotypes, harms from work than are older children. This justifies excluding them from work, often with the jim jones essay additional claim that work impedes their right to on stereotypes, school education and play, and scoring for act essay, that a simple ban is a more straightforward and effective means for keeping children safe than are the alternatives. However, evidence from research and practice across diverse contexts, not just in low and middle income countries but also in good, Europe, the USA and other industrialised settings, brings all of these assumptions into question, highlighting that C.138 is not only out of step with the Universal Declaration of for kids Human Rights and the CRC, but also with the thesis current state of scientific understanding and path, knowledge on these issues. In light of sound and clear research evidence, we conclude that ILO C.138, is inherently in thesis on stereotypes, contradiction with many principles of the CRC, including the principles of the best interest of the child and the right of the dissertation of interviews child to have his or her views taken into account. It equally omits full consideration of human rights principles of indivisibility of rights and the right to good, self-determination. Jim Jones Essay? Moreover, ILO Convention 182, relating to the Worst Forms of Child Labour, is intended to protect children against harmful work much more completely than does C.138.
Therefore, the net contribution of C.138 is primarily to good, prohibit children from work that is safe. Report? This indicates that instead of focusing on C.138, other regulatory interpretations of Labour and Human Rights Instruments can effectively protect children from good thesis harmful and exploitative work in ways that are in line with CRC Article 32 and other articles mentioned above. Specific ways in which C.138 does not comply with the Universal Declaration of purity essays on the path Human Rights or the CRC are as follows: 1) There is no evidence that a general minimum age prohibition is thesis on stereotypes inherently protective of children’s rights and wellbeing, and plenty of essays on the buddhist path evidence indicating that it can undermine children’s best interests. a) It ignores that learning through supervised engagement in work is one of the most fundamental mechanisms of human development and that children normally seek it, starting as early as they begin to imitate adult behaviours . It overlooks children’s multiple contributions to family, economy and social life as it does the positive functions that safe work can play in good thesis on stereotypes, children’s lives. For many children, initiation into work comprises a core feature of their learning and social integration, as well as contributing to family survival. Company Case Report? Moreover, learning, play and work are frequently intermingled in children’s behaviour and lives, defying the discrete categories that arise from artificial spatial and institutional separation of these activities.
b) Enforcing a minimum working age places working children under that age in a legal vacuum and excludes them both (i) from exercising a normal human development process and (ii) when entering labour markets, from protections, benefits and good thesis on stereotypes, services that should be accessible by all workers as a matter of should harvard right. c) Work, especially in the company of parents or other guardians, sometimes enables the good supervision and protection of children who would otherwise be alone and unoccupied, perhaps in hazardous situations. Enforcing a minimum working age removes such protection. 2) In focusing on removing younge r children from purity of heart essays path work (which, as indicated, in practice includes even light work), C.138 infringes children’s other rights as outlined in good thesis on stereotypes, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the CRC . a) Article 41 states that the UNCRC should not impede the realization of other rights granted children through national or international law. UDHR and the 1966 Covenants clearly articulate everyone’s right, without qualification by age, to work and to join workers’ associations or to form their own associations. Abbreviation of these human rights to children below a specified age is legitimate only if demonstrated to be necessary (in the absence of other protective alternatives) and effective in providing protection.
There is no evidence that C.138 fulfils either criteria. In fact, it violates the principle of non-discrimination and the right of everyone to work, to free choice of employment, to on space for kids, just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment, as laid out in the Preamble and Article 2 (General Principles) of the good CRC and in Articles 2 and 23 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights . Denial to children of the fundamental human right of workers to scoring, organize is an egregious violation of good thesis on stereotypes their rights that has no basis in on space for kids, human rights law and contravenes children’s participation rights (CRC Articles 12-15 inclusive). This is good thesis on stereotypes also in purity essays buddhist path, contravention of ILO Conventions 87 and on stereotypes, 98 . b) Mechanisms for monitoring of C.138 focus on the numbers of children removed from work and general attendance at school and do not include effects on children’s well-being and development, which is necessary to determine whether or not these interventions served the best interests of the child or other General Principles of the CRC. c) As indicated, children’s work may be essential to maintaining a standard of living that is path conducive to good on stereotypes, their development (as mandated in Article 27 ) as well as to the integrity of the family insofar as their work contributes to individual and jim jones essay, family survival, or improved quality of life. Therefore, removing children from work simply because of their age can endanger family livelihood strategies necessary to fulfilling their obligations to the child under Article 27 and in some circumstances may even threaten the child’s right to life and survival (Article 6). d) Work can contribute to developing a variety of social and thesis, technical skills, and should additional, so to children’s development to their fullest potential (as provided in CRC Articles 27, 29, and 32 ). e) Where income from children’s work is indispensable for their continued school enrolment, removing children from thesis work undermines realisation of their right to buddhist path, education ( Article 29 ). f) For all the above reasons, imposition of a general minimum working age can be contrary to the best interest of the child ( Article 3 ). g) CRC Article 32, Clause 2 (a) requiring States Parties to “provide for thesis on stereotypes a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment” was intentionally phrased in this way rather than as a general universal minimum age for admission to all kinds of employment or work. It is therefore consistent with the principles of essay on space targeted minimum-age measures restricted to specific sectors, or conditions and relations of work that are hazardous to younger children (as originally recognised in ILO’s sector-specific minimum age conventions prior to C.138, and in ILO Convention 182). The CRC wording thus facilitates and endorses the principle that targeted rather than general minimum ages can be necessary and effective. 3) C.138 and national laws and good on stereotypes, regulations complying with it do not address root causes of harmful child work and are inherently punitive, and thus can inadvertently harm the children they intend to protect.
a) Prohibiting harmful practices does not address their root causes. Consequently, rather than reducing demand, banning harmful work for children and penalties for infractions risks driving children into less visible and more dangerous activities where they enjoy even less protection. Elimination of for act children’s? work in easily monitored sectors has often led to children becoming involved in on stereotypes, the most detrimental forms of work (including those forms listed under ILO Convention 182). b) Advances in child protection measures, community work and other approaches in the field, conforming to the CRC and its spirit but outside the standards demanded by dissertation, C.138, have proved that peaceful and sustainable solutions can be very effective and welcomed by children, parents and communities. The social objective of measures regulating children’s work should be viewed as ensuring human rights for the most vulnerable individuals, families and communities rather than the narrower objective of simply conforming with labour standards. III. Thesis? Why the CRC should take precedence over ILO conventions when these conflict with basic principles of the CRC. Since international law by custom prioritizes the core international human rights treaties over other conventions and of heart essays buddhist, instruments, the CRC does, and indeed should, take precedence over thesis all other treaties and instruments concerning children’s rights and well-being, for the following reasons among others: a) As well as reiterating that children are subjects of all Human Rights (Preamble) , the sony report UNCRC was promulgated on the basis that children are entitled to special care and assistance ( Preamble and Article 3) . It is supplementary to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and built on the same essential values and principles. In conferring rights of provision, protection and participation to every human being below the age of on stereotypes 18 years (unless under the law applicable to essay on space, the child, majority is attained earlier) it is the paramount treaty internationally that concerns children. b) It is also the most widely ratified international human rights treaty in history, as well as being legally binding on all States Parties.
c) Finally, it provides ( Article 3 ) that in matters of children’s rights, the good thesis on stereotypes best interests of children should be given primary consideration, this principle giving an underpinning for all international agreements that concern children, including (and in on space, particular) those that are not human rights instruments. Children should play a part in all deliberations concerning their best interests. When reviewing the good thesis on stereotypes extent to which other treaties and analysis of interviews, instruments are compliant with the CRC, it is important to acknowledge the underlying features and principles of the good on stereotypes CRC, as follows: a) The CRC is essay notable in considering children’s rights in the wider contexts of good children’s lives, which in itself is protective. The CRC stands out from many other instruments and jim jones essay, treaties in its appreciation that the most effective way to realise children’s rights is to enable and facilitate, rather than to enforce, social change. It makes clear that this goal is achieved by respecting, supporting and working with the structures, institutions, norms and values that support children in on stereotypes, the contexts in which they live and by essays on the, ensuring that children are able to be active members of their societies. Thus, the treaty takes ‘due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the on stereotypes child’ as well as confirming that ‘the child should be fully prepared to live an scoring for act individual life in thesis on stereotypes, society’ (Preamble) . The CRC also recognises the prominent roles played by parents and families in children’s lives and makes clear that supporting them in should additional essay, these roles is essential to the realisation of children’s rights. The Preamble refers to the family as the ‘fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being… of children’ and states that the family should be ‘afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community’.
Similarly, Article 5 asserts that States Parties ‘shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of good thesis on stereotypes parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the company case study report evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention’. This is not to condone rights violations simply because certain values and practices are acceptable in specific cultural communities and contexts. Rather, it is to highlight that peers, families and others have a crucial protective role in relation to good on stereotypes, children and that measures that build on cultural consensus are more likely to have positive outcomes for analysis of interviews children than are those that that ignore, or unduly dismiss or stigmatise, local values and understandings. The approach of conscientization has shown that critical reflection and analysis can effectively and good, more safely bring about change from within local cultures and report, contexts. In their application to working children, these twin principles imply that decisions about what is safe and appropriate for the young should be arrived at through discussion and negotiation with local institutions and with the children themselves, rather than by enforcement of good on stereotypes a universal, globalised age-based criterion.
Moreover, they imply that laws or regulations that do not take account of the economic and social circumstances of parents and families may render children more vulnerable. Analysis Of Interviews? Aside from the family, other institutions that may be invoked in the protection and enablement of children’s rights include religious and civil society organisations, such as working children’s organisations and good, similar bodies. b) The CRC provides a holistic framework for the full realisation of all civil, social, political, economic and cultural rights for all children everywhere, thereby upholding the company case report fundamental principle that children’s rights are indivisible. This means that to align with the CRC, all instruments and treaties concerning children, including those that focus on a single practice or circumstance like children’s work, must be mindful of conserving all of the rights awarded in the CRC. The monitoring of any implementation of Article 32, therefore, should attend to good on stereotypes, whether a ban on children’s work leads to serious violation of their other rights. c) The General Principles comprise a set of essay overarching rights that are essential for the realisation of thesis all rights embodied in the CRC, as well as those bestowed in other treaties concerning children.
Thus, the principles of non-discrimination (Article 2), best interest of the child ( Article 3), right to life, survival and development (Article 6) and right to be heard (Article 12) must find expression in all other articles, treaties and on space, instruments concerning children’s rights. IV Recommendations to the Committee. The CRC is both applicable universally to all children in all situations and settings, and attentive to local contexts. This presents a challenge for implementation, in that the standards and good thesis, thresholds for children’s rights and the most appropriate and effective means of achieving these standards and thresholds are open to interpretation. There is widespread agreement, however, that no child should be engaged in hazardous or exploitative work and that children in poverty share the essay same right to protection from such work as do all other children. Given the lack of clear and good thesis, established criteria for judging harm to children, together with the extensive evidence of (unintended) detrimental consequences of general minimum-age based bans for children and their families, positive measures that facilitate schooling and safe work by children are both more efficacious and more closely aligned with the requirement that children’s rights be understood within the scoring essay wider contexts of their lives (in the CRC Preamble and General Principles). The arguments provided in good on stereotypes, sections I – III above suggest clearly that the should write harvard most effective step towards bringing international labour standards (and national measures based on them) in line with the UNCRC would be the revocation by ILO of its Convention 138. Understanding that this is an unlikely prospect in the foreseeable future, we make the on stereotypes following concrete recommendations to the Committee. 1. The Committee should remove any endorsement or promotion of ILO C.138 from its General Comment on case report, the Implementation of the Rights of the good Child during Adolescence. 2. Reference to ILO Convention 182 in the General Comment should be explicitly coupled with the requirement to interpret and implement it with respect for children’s rights, and with consideration for local contexts, to ensure that children’s best interests are served and children are not harmed by it. 3. The Committee should advise States Parties that CRC Article 32.2 (a) requiring States Parties to “provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment” should not be interpreted as endorsement of report general minimum-age legislation but rather as endorsement of targeted prohibitions, where necessary, to protect younger children in specific situations or sectors from specific harms.
4. The Committee should invite the ILO, in collaboration with the Committee and other qualified agencies and experts, to initiate a process of good thesis on stereotypes dialogue aimed at bringing the ILO’s child labour standards into conformance with the jim jones essay CRC. This can be initiated during the period leading up to the ILO’s 2017 Child Labour Conference, and continued thereafter with the various steps necessary to bring ILO standards into conformance with the CRC (including compiling existing information, identifying gaps, further data collection, analysis, workshops and consultations). 5. The Committee should make efforts to thesis on stereotypes, assist States Parties (through training and advisory services, and other means) to update or adapt their legislation relating to write additional, children’s work so that they are in conformance with the CRC. 6. Finally, the Committee enquired about thesis our position in essay for kids, relation to the legal framework adopted by the Bolivian government in relation to children’s work. The Bolivian initiative stands out as having been developed in consultation with children and adolescents and cast firmly in a human and thesis on stereotypes, child rights framework, while also recognising that work and responsibility can have an important role in the full development of the purity essays buddhist child.
Thus, it is the position of the group that the thesis Bolivian initiative deserves attention and consideration as a more holistic attempt, explicitly aligned with child rights principles, to protect children from analysis exploitative and harmful work. We, as a group of on stereotypes researchers and should write harvard, practitioners, would be ready to assist the Committee in thesis, implementing these recommendations. Dr Bree Akesson. Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada. Professor Priscilla Alderson. Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University College London, UK. Independent Consultant, Canada. Dr Nicola Ansell. Brunel University, London, UK. Dr Dena Aufseeser.
University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA. Professor Janet Boddy. University of Sussex, UK. Ms Doris Bonnet. French Research Institute for for act essay Developpement, France. Professor Michael Bourdillon. University of on stereotypes Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe. Professor Jo Boyden.
University of Oxford, UK. Mr James Boyon representing the African Movement of Working Children Youth. African Movement of Working Children and Youth, Senegal. Ms Rebecca Budde. Coordination, M.A. in Childhood Studies and Children's Rights, Free University, Berlin, Germany. Mr Richard Carothers. Partners in Technology Exchange (www.ppic-work.org), Canada. Dra / Profesora Maria Delores Cervera. Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico.
Dr Kabita Chakraborty. Children's Studies Program, York University, Canada. Mr Saifullah Channa. Executive Director, Development of Institution and for act essay, Youth Alliance, Pakistan. Dr John Cockburn. Departement d’economique, Universite Laval, Partnership for Economic Policy, Canada. Dr Tara Collins.
Ryerson University, Canada. International Institute for Child Rights and good thesis on stereotypes, Development, Canada. Dr Gina Crivello. University of Oxford, UK. Dr Jennifer Driscoll. Kings College London, UK.
Dr Maria Claudia Duque Paramo. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia. University of Melbourne, Australia. Professor Lowell Ewert. Director, Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Waterloo, Canada. Mr Justin Flynn. Institute of Development Studies, UK. Dr Lourdes Gaitan. Grupo de Sociologia de la Infancia y la Adolescencia, Spain.
Mr Yashodhan Ghorpade. Conflict, Violence and scoring, Development Cluster, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. University of Bath, UK. Professor Roger Hart. Children's Environments Research Group, The Graduate Center of the good City University of New York, USA. Mr Emrul Hasan representing Plan Canada.
Director, Program Effectiveness and Technical Advisors Plan Canada. Robert Schuman Centre for for kids Advanced Studies, European University Institute; Editor Beyond Trafficking and Slavery, Open Democracy, UK. Dr Roy Huijsmans. Senior Lecturer Children Youth Studies, International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), The Hague, Netherlands. Ms Sara Imanian. University of Central Lancashire, UK. Dr Antonella Invernizzi. Independent Consultant, France. Dr Melanie Jacquemin. Beyond Trafficking and Slavery, France. University of Sussex, UK.
Mr Bijan Kimiagar. Children's Environments Research Group, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, USA. Professor Anne Trine Kjorholt. Norwegian Centre for Child Research, Norway. Dr Caroline Krafft.
St. Catherine University, USA. Dr Cath Larkins. The Centre for good on stereotypes Children and Young People’s Participation, University of Central Lancashire, UK. Dr Deborah Levison. Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, USA. Professor Manfred Liebel. International Academy Berlin and University of Applied Sciences Potsdam, Germany. Dr Stanford Mahati. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
Ms Despina Maraki. Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece. Dr Emma Mawdsley. University of Cambridge, UK. Dr Kate McAlpine. Caucus for Children's Rights, Tanzania. Mr Nicolas Meslaoui. Independent Consultant, Belgium.
Independent Consultant, France. Dr Virginia Morrow. Deputy Director of Young Lives, Associate Professor Senior Research Officer, Department of International Development, University of Oxford, UK. Retired from for act United Nations (UNICEF and ILO), International Institute for Child Rights and Development, USA. Ms Claire O'Kane. Independent Consultant, UK.
Mr Samuel Okyere. University of good thesis Nottingham; Editor Beyond Trafficking and Slavery, Open Democracy, UK. Dr Alphonce Omolo. Director Lensthru Consultants; Children’s Rights, Youth Work, Education, Research and Social Development, Kenya. Dr Alula Pankhurst.
Director, Young Lives, Ethiopia. Dr Kirrily Pells. University College London, Institute of Education, UK. Ms Carmen Ponce. Group for the Analysis of Development, Lima, Peru.
Dr Kirsten Pontalti. University of Oxford, UK. Professor Gina Porter. Durham University, UK. Ms Kavita Ratna representing the Concerned for Working Children. Director Advocacy, The Concerned for dissertation Working Children, Bangalore, India. Dr Elsbeth Robson. University of Hull, UK. Dr Keetie Roelen.
Institute of Development Studies, UK. Dr Rachel Rosen. UCL Institute of Education, UK. Mr Bernard Schlemmer. French Research Institute for Developpement, France. Professor Spyros Spyrou. European University, Cyprus. Dr Jessica Taft. University of California, USA. Mr Fabrizo Terenzio representing Enda.
Enda Tiers Monde, Senegal. Professor Nigel Thomas. The Centre for Children and Young People's Participation, School of thesis on stereotypes Social Work, Care and Community, University of Central Lancashire, UK. Professor Rachel Thomson. University of Sussex, UK. Dr Dorte Thorsen. University of Sussex, UK. Professor Kay Tisdall representing the Centre for Research on Families and sony, Relationships, University of Edinburgh.
Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, U of Edinburgh, UK. Dr Afua Twum-Danso Imoh. Department of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield, UK. Dr Lorraine van Blerk. University of Dundee, UK. Voix des Enfants Actifs. La Voie des Enfants Actifs, France.
Dr Debbie Watson. School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, UK. Professor Ben White. Emeritus Professor, International Institute of Social Studies Erasmus, University Rotterdam, Netherlands. Professor Martin Woodhead. Emeritus Professor of Childhood Studies, the Open University, UK; Associate Research Director, Young Lives , Department of good thesis International Development, Oxford University. Dr Nabeel Yahya. Friends of the on space Environment Centre, Doha, Qatar. Mr Sepideh Yousefzadeh.
Abebe, T. Thesis? 2007. Changing livelihoods, changing childhoods: Patterns of children's work in rural Southern Ethiopia. Children's Geographies, 5(1): 77–93. Abebe, T., Kjorholt, A.-T. (Eds.). (2013). Childhood and local knowledge in Ethiopia.
Livelihoods, rights and intergenerational relationships. Trondheim: Akademik Forlag. Ames, P. Sony Company Case Study? (2013a). Learning to be responsible: Young children transitions outside school. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 2(3), 143–154. Aufseeser, Dena, 2014, Limiting spaces of informal learning among street children in Peru, in Sarah Mills and Peter Kraftl (ed.), Informal Education, Childhood and Youth: Geographies, Histories, Practices, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 112–23.
Besen-Cassino, Yasemin, 2014, Consuming Work: Youth Labor in America, Temple University Press, Philadelphia. Bolin, Inge, 2006, Growing Up In A Culture of Respect: Child Rearing in Highland Peru, Austin: University of Texas Press. Bray Rachel, 2003, ‘Who Does the Housework? An Examination of South African Children’s Working Roles’ Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies 29(2) pp 95-131. Crivello, G. (2011). ‘Becoming Somebody’: Youth transitions through education and migration in Peru. Journal of Youth Studies, 14(4), 395–411. Heissler, K.; Porter, C. Know Your Place: Ethiopian Children’s Contributions to the Household Economy. European Journal of Development Research (2013) 25 (4) 600-620. [DOI: 10.1057/ejdr.2013.22] Jacquemin, M. 2006.
Can the language of rights get hold of the complex realities of child domestic work? The case of young domestic workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Childhood,13, 3: 389-406. Liborio, R. Thesis? M. C. and sony company case, Ungar, M. (2010), Children’s Perspectives on their Economic Activity as a Pathway to Resilience. Good? Children Society, 24: 326–338. Liebel, M. (2003) Working children as social subjects: The contribution of working children’s organizations to social transformations. Childhood 10(3): 265-285. Liebel, Manfred (with Karl Hanson, Iven Saadi Wouter Vandenhole), 2012, Children’s Rights from Below: Cross-cultural perspectives. For Act? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Liebel, Manfred Iven Saadi, ‘Elimination of Child Labor or Work in Dignity for Children?
Remarks on the  Child Labor Report.’ In Jessica K. Taft (ed.), Nothing About Us, Without Us: Critiques of the International Labor Organization’s Approach to Child Labor from the Movements of good thesis Working Children. Lima: IFEJANT, 2013, pp. 18-19. Liebel, Manfred, 2007, ‘The new ILO report on child labour: a success story, or the ILO still at loss?’ Childhood. A global journal of child research, 14(2), pp. 279-284. Liebel, Manfred, 2012, ‘Children’s Work, Education and Agency: The African Movement of Working Children and Youth (AMWCY).’ In G. Spittler M. Bourdillon (eds.), African Children at Work: Working and Learning in dissertation analysis of interviews, Growing Up for thesis on stereotypes Life. Zurich/Berlin: LIT, pp. Essay? 303-332. Liebel, Manfred, 2013, ‘Do children have a right to work? Working children’s movements in on stereotypes, the struggle for jim jones essay social justice.’ In K. Hanson O. Good Thesis? Nieuwenhuys (eds.), Reconceptualizing Children’s Rights in International Development: Living Rights, Social Justice, Translations.
New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 225-249. Liebel, Manfred, 2015, 'Protecting the Rights of Working Children instead of Banning Child Labour: Bolivia Tries a New Legislative Approach.’ The International Journal of Children’s Rights, 23(3), pp. 529-547. Maconachiea, Roy, and Gavin Hilson, 2016, Re-thinking the child labor ‘‘problem” in rural sub-saharan Africa: The case of of heart essays buddhist path Sierra Leone’s half shovels, World Development, Vol. 78 no., pp. 136–47. Maria Florencia Amigo, 2010, Small Bodies, Large Contribution: Children's Work in the Tobacco Plantations of Lombok, Indonesia, The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 11:1, 34-51.
Mortimer, Jeylan, 2003, Work and Growing Up in America, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Pankhurst, A., M. Bourdillon, G. Crivello (Eds.) Children’s Work and Labour in good, East Africa. Addis Ababa: Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa. (pp. 19–40) Robson, E., N. Jim Jones Essay? Ansell, U. Huber, W. Good On Stereotypes? Gould, and L. van Blerk. On The Buddhist? 2006. “Young Caregivers in the Context of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Population, Space and Place 12 (2): 93–111 doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1544-8452. Rogoff, Barbara, 1990, Apprenticeship in on stereotypes, Thinking: Cognitive Development in Social Context, New York: Oxford University Press.
Spittler, G and Bourdillon, M (eds) 2012. African Children at Work: work and learning in growing up for life. Berlin: Lit Verlag. Virginia Morrow (2015). Intersections of School, Work, and Learning: Children in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam, Chapter in: Handbook of Geographies of Children and write harvard essay, Young People, edited by Tracy Skelton, Singapore: Springer. Woodhead, M. 1998. Children’s Perspectives on their Working Lives: A Participatory Study in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, the thesis Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador and for act essay, Nicaragua, Stockholm: Radda Barnen.  Treaty of thesis Versailles Article 427, 1919.  This is hardly surprising since the principles behind C.138 were developed almost three decades ahead of the first human rights instrument (Declaration of Human Rights, 1948) and scoring for act, 70 years before the good thesis on stereotypes CRC (1989).  Currently 196 countries are parties to jim jones essay, the treaty, some with stated reservations or interpretations.
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Truancy in Our School’s: A Growing Problem Essay Sample. The success of good thesis on stereotypes our schools performing its primary functions of teaching, educating, and socializing the young is predicted on regular school attendance. Truancy is rated among the essay on space major problems facing schools today (Garry, 1996). Schools in some larger cities have reported absenteeism rates as high as 50 percent per good thesis on stereotypes day (Allen-Meares, 2004). The issue of company case report truancy compromises schools’ primary function and places our young people at risk. According to the Bilchik, truant students have the potential to good thesis on stereotypes, lead a lifetime of unemployment, crime, and incarceration (Garry, 1996).
Truancy is often a symptom of a deeper problem. Typically, students who become chronic truants and poor achievers are usually members of families of low socioeconomic status (Allen-Meares, 2004). Students who are of a low socioeconomic status may inhibit a home environment that is jim jones essay, less likely to be conductive for learning. There are many influences on truancy. Some of the possible influences are directed towards families that do not value education, education background of primary care taker, lack of thesis on stereotypes parental involvement, inadequate social support from the family, negative relationship with parents, broken family, poor academic achievement, child unhappy at home, peer-group pressure, and students being bullied (Allen-Meares, 2004, DuBois, Eitel, Felner, 1994, and Lin McBride, 1996). When students are not in the classroom, they are missing out on valuable learning time. When one-fourth of purity essays buddhist path all students miss almost one day a week, there is a problem with poor achievement. The absent student cannot learn effectively and the rest of the class will probably lose learning time when the teacher slows the pace to allow them to catch up. Truant students are not only affecting their own education but also possibly affecting their classmates’ education. For many students, poor achievement is just the beginning of how truancy is impacting them. Other implications of poor achieving truants include low self-esteem, confusion, resentment, and demoralization (Allen-Meares, 2004).
There are school social workers equipped to help teachers understand the environmental forces that impinge upon regular attendance in school (Allen-Meares, 2004). Social workers work from the ecological perspective, and are in good thesis on stereotypes, a position to assist the dissertation student’s school in understanding what their needs are in thesis on stereotypes, being motivated to be academically successful. Literature indicates that school social workers need to be saturating our youth in interventions to prevent truancy. Much of the literature on sony company case report truancy focuses on middle and high school youth; a common theme identifies the attendance patterns of older students who did not begin in middle and high school but at a much younger age (Grootes Faidly, 2002). It would be beneficial for good on stereotypes, youth to experience interventions for jim jones essay, truancy heavily in elementary school. Absenteeism usually shifts at some point in a student’s career, from good thesis on stereotypes being a symptom of purity on the a problem to becoming defined as “the” problem itself (Grooters Faidley, 2002). High mobility is another factor to be linked to good, truancy and poor school achievement; frequent moves are much more prevalent in poor families (Allen-Meares, 2004). Washington (1973) conducted a study with 56 inner-city high school students who had been classified as truants.
The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of truancy and categorize the reasons why students were motivated to be absent from school. Truants “adjustment to report, school work” proved to be the thesis on stereotypes primary reason for excluding themselves from school. Purity Of Heart. Truants recognize their academic weaknesses, such as their underdeveloped reading, writing, and speaking skills, disinterest in good thesis on stereotypes, present course content, and frequent fear of and experience of frustration and failure with difficult course work (Washington, 1973). Corville-Smith, Ryan, Adams, Delicandro (1998) presented a study of the relationship between students’ attendance and the personal characteristics of the student, the student’s family relations, and school variables in a sample of 54 high school students. Absent students perceived their families to be less cohesive than the regular attendees, felt fewer acceptances by should essay their parents, and their parental discipline was inconsistent and ineffective. Other findings from the study suggest that absent students were less likely to perceive school experiences favorably, felt inferior academically, experienced family conflict, and were less likely to be socially competent in their relations in class. Family problems were unlikely to be confined to the home and on stereotypes spilled over into the school, affecting student’s concentration, grades, and relationships with teachers and classmates (Corville-Smith, Ryan, Adams, Dalicando, 1998). Benda (1987) supports that parental values and of interviews ambitions play a large role in on stereotypes, children’s school attendance and that a supportive family is the most important source of a child’s attitude toward school attendance.
Baer (1999) indicates that the transition from childhood to early adolescence consists of major changes in a number of psychosocial dimensions. For Kids. Pubertal timing and the degree of change such as the on stereotypes transition to junior high school bring a heightened potential for analysis, problems such as use of drugs and thesis on stereotypes alcohol, the increase of school drop out, decline in academic motivation, and decreased interest in school generally. Scoring Essay. During this time of change the student is in need of being supported by all those involved with them. Thesis On Stereotypes. The author discussed how students making the transition to junior high school could be complicated by the development changes taking place. Children tend to spent more time at home than any other place. Parents are a child’s first role models and greatly influence norms, values, and expectations. Parents can serve as productive models or as destructive models that behave in negative or rejecting ways and jim jones essay set demands that contribute to their children becoming truant (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Thesis On Stereotypes. Research points out that truant children often receive insufficient parental attention and see this as a contributing factor to for act, truancy (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Thesis On Stereotypes. They also add that frequent relocation, performing domestic chores, and should essay staying at home to resolve domestic conflicts contributes to on stereotypes, truancy.
The social culture of school itself may put excessive stress on youth pushing them toward truancy. Cnaan and Seltzer (1989) discuss school characteristics as factors that contribute to truancy. Teachers inadequately trained to meet the needs of truant children, and the use of expulsion and suspension are part of this social culture. Educators not being encouraging and not having positive expectations are also seen as contributors of purity of heart essays on the buddhist path truancy (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989; Washington 1973). Individual factors need to be looked at when addressing truancy. Good Thesis. Some children come from positive home environments and attend good schools, but become truants because of disabilities (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989).
Disabilities may include severe mental illness, mental retardation as well as learning disabilities. These issues are prevalent and growing within our schools. Other individual characteristics associated with truancy include school phobia, school failure and low self-esteem. A child is not only a product of essay family and the socialization agents of good society, but also a reflection of Their environment (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Environmental factors include peer-pressure, no value placed on purity on the path education, availability of drugs and alcohol, neighborhood safety, and students being bullied (Cnaan Seltzer 1989; Allen-Meares, 2004). Good Thesis On Stereotypes. Cnaan Seltzer (1989) address the importance of the ecological perspective in addressing the issue of dissertation of interviews truancy. Factors that contribute to good on stereotypes, truancy affect urban students differently than rural students, inner city students differently than suburban students, black students differently than white students, boys differently than girls, and elementary school students differently than secondary school students. In addressing truancy every student must be assessed individually and company case not viewed the same because truancy is the common factor. Truancy has the ability to place students in harsh, life long consequences. When students are not in the classroom they are missing out on valuable learning time and on stereotypes the absent student cannot learn effectively. Truancy may also be seen as a stepping-stone to delinquent and criminal activity.
Garry (1996) reported many studies have documented the correlation between drug use and truancy; the University of Maryland found that 51% of female juvenile detainees not in school at the time of their arrests tested positive for drug use. Serious social problems, such as illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, political powerlessness, alienation, social deviance and crime, intergenerational dependency, and racial discrimination, stem from purity of heart essays truancy (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). As discussed earlier, the truant student falls behind in their school or is not able to do the work because of not being academically prepared. They are more prone to drop out than catch-up (Garry, 1996). Truancy is a major barrier to learning. Students who miss school frequently are often unable to develop interpersonal relationships or gain the knowledge and skills they will need for future employment (Garry, 1996). Many students are not prepared for the workforce because of not being able to read, fill out a job application, or find employment. The effect of on stereotypes unemployment combined with low paying occupations creates a low socioeconomic status group (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). The overwhelming majorities of truants are not able to acquire significant political power in a democratic society, and write harvard essay they are among the good on stereotypes most passage clients of various welfare services (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989).
Truant students may not be looking ahead to the life they are pursuing and the struggles of poverty that may follow. Another consequence of truancy is self-destructive behavior. Should. Garry (1996) discussed the risk of truants becoming involved in drugs, alcohol, and violence leading to incarceration. Truants can find themselves alienated from their support systems. Good Thesis. Intergenerational perpetuation of low level educational commitment and achievement is a consequence of truancy with long-term effects (Cnaan Seltzer, 1989). Truancy can be a vicious cycle touching many lives. Children of truants and poor achievers can easily become truants themselves. Therefore, with the severity of these implications, there is a great need for interventions to jim jones essay, combat truancy. Research on dropouts indicates schools need to intervene earlier when addressing problems with student attendance.
Much of the literature relating to truancy focuses on middle and high school youth, a common theme identifies the attendance patterns of older students did not begin in thesis on stereotypes, middle or high school, but at a much younger age (Grooters Faidley, 2002). As stated earlier, it is important to view truancy through the ecological perspective. The interventions that are chosen to be implemented with truant students should address and involve the family, the social culture of the school, and the community. Encouragement and positive feedback for improved attendance assist in shaping the student into becoming a regular attendee. Epstein and dissertation of interviews Sheldon (2001) provide strategies on how to increase and sustain student attendance. Their study found that communicating effectively about attendance with parents, providing a school contact person for parents to call, and rewarding students for improved attendance were three activities consistently associated with increased average daily attendance and reduced chronic absences. This intervention was designed to improve school-to-home and thesis on stereotypes home-to-school communications, and to recognize good attendance. In doing this, parents had clear information about report, school attendance policies and the importance of attendance for student report card grades and classroom learning. Parents need to know the value of education and share the same value with their children.
From this study “it appears that family, school, and community partnerships can improve student attendance” (Epstein Sheldon, 2001). In Neosho, Kansas, the County Attorney and local teachers initiated the At School, On Time, Ready to Work program (Garry, 1996). This program recognizes that the good thesis problem of essay for kids truancy is not only with the child, but also with the families, schools, and community. The program provides intense supervision of the good thesis child, support and group therapy to for act essay, the child, and support and education services to the parents of the thesis child. The results of scoring for act essay these interventions determined, that 12 middle school students enrolled during the school year 1994-1995, only thesis one child became the subject of court petition, and the other students stayed out of the dissertation analysis custody of the Department and Rehabilitation Services, with no reports of committed offenses over the summer. Grooters and good on stereotypes Faidley (2002) support truancy interventions being implemented in elementary school age children because attendance patterns do not begin middle and high school but at a much younger age. The next two interventions discussed are for elementary school age children. Essay. These two interventions are very different from each other. One addresses families through the good on stereotypes ecological perspective, and should harvard additional essay involves the family, the social culture of the school, and the community. While the other one focuses on the child and culture of the school.
The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools (DMPS) initiated an attendance improvement program called Project REACH. REACH emphasizes improving attendance in the early years (grades 1, 2 and 3) of good on stereotypes elementary school before long-term attendance patterns of analysis poor attendance are established (Grooters Faidley, 2002). REACH was developed through the Department for Human Services and DMPS and had community support and active involvement from thesis District Five Judicial Court Judge, the Polk County Attorney’s Office, the Restorative Justice Center (mediation branch of the County Attorney’s Office), and the Youth Hall Center. The school social workers were placed in a priority role of helping families who were dealing with attendance issues, as the issue of attendance frequently becomes the entry point in helping families with other issues that are affecting the lives of the children (Grooters Faidley, 2002). Building Attendance Teams (BAT) was established to monitor student attendance in each elementary school. BAT communicated and worked with the school social worker on a regular basis to sony case, ensure that communication was established with parents of children who were developing excessive absences. The communication between school and good thesis on stereotypes home was viewed as a crucial element in this intervention. Communication allowed information of the child’s needs of home or at school to be shared. REACH initiates communication with parents of essay on space children who missed between 7-10days. It is standard DMPS policy to send letters to good on stereotypes, inform parents of their child’s attendance when their child has missed 7 days and 12 days of school.
BAT decides what further contact is to case report, be made with the family and good thesis how it will occur. If contact with parents indicates that services are needed and desired, appropriate agency referrals are offered by the school social worker. Dissertation Of Interviews. It is the goal for Project REACH that though concentrated, high priority attention to students who are accruing frequent absences, increased involvement with the family and identification of their needs will bring a reduction in absences and good on stereotypes assist the case family in functional home and school success (Grooters Faidley, 2002). Is this the thesis perfect essay for you? Save time and order Truancy in Our School’s: A Growing Problem. essay editing for only $13.9 per sony company page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Truancy in Our School’s: A Growing Problem. Worldwide, most students attend either single-sex schools or co-ed schools. Is there a difference?
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Essay's Helper: Thesis Statement Examples On Stereotypes…
conclusions to essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
Pp. On Stereotypes! 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of essay a paper's content. It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the good conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. Write Essay! For a writer in thesis on stereotypes the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information.
For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of academic material . This last sentence is essay on space our thesis for this section. Based on good thesis this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of jim jones essay a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject. In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and were different kinds of on stereotypes generals is the predicate.
What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of dissertation of interviews generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to thesis, allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper. Of Heart Path! The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and good, Grant were a thesis, the dissertation analysis of interviews reader would assume that the rest of the thesis on stereotypes essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and dissertation analysis, the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an good thesis effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of jim jones essay government. Consider the subject of good this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of government. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.
The predicate of our example is also a problem, for scoring, the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of thesis college students. Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an sony company study effective thesis and thesis on stereotypes, thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and analysis, your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to thesis on stereotypes, begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over analysis of interviews, students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper.
Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Good On Stereotypes! Once you choose and of heart on the, devote time to a major field of good study, however, you will gain experience. In the scoring essay meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of thesis on stereotypes expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs. Jim Jones Essay! Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of good thesis on stereotypes a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research.
Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is should write a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to on stereotypes, be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing. Even if you know your material well, the purity of heart best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it. Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to good, which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. 1 If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the should write thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the content and good, thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to for kids, and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about good on stereotypes, backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements.
It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs. He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to on space, say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin?
First, you need to select a broad area of interest and good, make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. Jim Jones Essay! What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for on stereotypes, whatever reason. On Space For Kids! (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the good academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for write harvard additional, yourself as much as for your professor. Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by on stereotypes class if need be; review the company report semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment. Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of on stereotypes departure.
Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the write harvard goal of your research is to limit this subject to thesis, a manageable scope. Write Additional Essay! Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways.
First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the on stereotypes work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the should write harvard civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in thesis that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to for kids, review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind:
Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education. Any one of thesis these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the dissertation of interviews aspects; to choose more would obligate you to good on stereotypes, too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of case study report time, before you attempt to write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for thesis on stereotypes, a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The process of narrowing an analysis initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of good thesis a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories. Scoring! Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of thesis them.
In the of heart on the buddhist path AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the thesis on stereotypes civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the harvard essay subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Good Thesis On Stereotypes! Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion. Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it.
If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources. Sony Case Report! If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at good thesis on stereotypes the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Of Heart Essays On The! Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to on stereotypes, fashion a working thesis. Jim Jones Essay! A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of good thesis others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in scoring essay order of increasing complexity.
During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the thesis on stereotypes paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. Jim Jones Essay! The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the good thesis paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Scoring Essay! Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in good thesis the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of scoring plans and then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones.
Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Good Thesis On Stereotypes! Assuming the jim jones essay paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on thesis on stereotypes the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the scoring for act rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the on stereotypes existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the sony company case paper to good thesis, follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist. The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3:
Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. Dissertation! We infer from the thesis use of the of interviews word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for thesis, protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in should harvard protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in on stereotypes the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is dissertation of interviews not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in good thesis on stereotypes writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading.
The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the essay for kids readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for good on stereotypes, information, not analysis (e.g., List and essay, explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for good on stereotypes, organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for should essay, some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to good on stereotypes, modify American democracy significant?). The strongly argumentative thesis is used to purity on the buddhist path, organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the good riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections.
But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of scoring essay a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers. Good On Stereotypes! Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of jim jones essay your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by thesis on stereotypes their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and jim jones essay, complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the thesis assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the paper that follows. Scoring Essay! Every element of the thesis should be developed in good on stereotypes the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions.
A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. Any paper in which you draw upon study sources will rely heavily on thesis quotation, summary, and purity of heart, paraphrase. How do you choose among the thesis three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and company report, certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the thesis on stereotypes development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted.
So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . Purity! The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by good thesis on stereotypes comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an for act essay army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. Good Thesis! How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding?
You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in essay fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.
You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to good on stereotypes, Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and essay for kids, longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to good thesis, make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . Write Additional Essay! . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they burn.my poor heart! The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is thesis on stereotypes one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from harvard additional essay, Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written):
Direct quotation : Franklin D. Thesis! Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to of heart essays buddhist, fear is good thesis fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the of heart essays on the buddhist liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in good a footnote].
Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Company Case Study! Read this passage from good on stereotypes, a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of dissertation analysis of interviews 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. Good Thesis! This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.
Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on of interviews the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on thesis the combs, eating the dissertation stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed:
Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of good on stereotypes bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures. But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by company study constantly moving their body parts. Good! The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is sony company case report admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language.
You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of good on stereotypes respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.
Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to buddhist path, be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Good Thesis On Stereotypes! Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for sony company case report, an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero.
Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an thesis on stereotypes Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into purity of heart essays, the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and good, direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of scoring his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to good thesis, speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and analysis, former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to good thesis, rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail.
Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the jim jones essay expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Thesis On Stereotypes! Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of write harvard essay college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago:
If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and good thesis on stereotypes, the public, it is even worse for essay, the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is good thesis on stereotypes a half-wit. Essay On Space! Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the good thesis on stereotypes colleges and universities themselves.
Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to purity essays on the buddhist, be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in good thesis on stereotypes a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of essay Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the thesis on stereotypes passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins:
Robert Hutchins, a former president of the dissertation of interviews University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the thesis on stereotypes paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of harvard additional standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of good thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Write Essay! Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the good thesis sentence - beginning, middle, or end.
Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to jim jones essay, introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in good a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and jim jones essay, even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to good, quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau.
Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the purity reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the good whole life to jim jones essay, this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and good on stereotypes, one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the essay customs of the day esteem.
It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Thesis On Stereotypes! Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the essay original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words:
To read well . is a noble exercise, and good thesis on stereotypes, one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of purity of heart path a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an good author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to on space, add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion.
For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Good Thesis! Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in essays on the buddhist path the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to good thesis on stereotypes, shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and should additional, birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. Good Thesis! She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the essay mice. Thesis On Stereotypes! She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice!
6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by for act essay using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for good, a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in jim jones essay this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.
If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in on stereotypes the middle of the sentence to jim jones essay, be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to good thesis, use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's:
These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better. Analysis Of Interviews! Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. Good! In another 15 years or so - two more generations of scoring essay computer evolution, in the jargon of the good thesis on stereotypes technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures.
But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the essay equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Thesis On Stereotypes! Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to scoring essay, play checkers. They polished their game by thesis playing each other, but they learned slowly. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to should write additional, think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the computers learned very quickly. One of on stereotypes them beat Samuel and went on purity on the to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7.
If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear. Thesis! Here is how you would manage the purity of heart buddhist path quotation: According to good thesis on stereotypes, Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for on space, guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to good, carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is of heart essays buddhist a problem.
What's the good thesis on stereotypes best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only jim jones essay after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction.
There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to thesis, introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the sony study piece on paper and good, read it over write, once or twice that a natural way of on stereotypes introducing it becomes apparent. Scoring Essay! Even if there is no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by good thesis on stereotypes skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin. Dissertation Of Interviews! If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of good thesis on stereotypes your essay.
The introduction makes the should write essay connection between the good thesis on stereotypes more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. Scoring Essay! M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Good! Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is for act essay one of the glories of civilization.
To one American in good particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . . the dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the jim jones essay time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in good our time: The world of today . . . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13). As we move toward the sony company case report twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to thesis, question the scoring essay continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for good thesis on stereotypes, the discussion of democracy by of heart essays on the presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of good on stereotypes change that will be central to purity of heart on the, the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen.
Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. Thesis! In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the sony case Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to good on stereotypes, the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the for kids Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films. On Stereotypes! By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip.
In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of company case sex or violence. Thesis! Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the report relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on good thesis on stereotypes the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate.
Consider the dissertation analysis following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by good employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of for act essay a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in good thesis his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. Essay On Space For Kids! I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay.
But to on stereotypes, introduce this topic, the purity buddhist writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to on stereotypes, two controversial practitioners. By focusing at jim jones essay the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay. From General to thesis, the Specific. Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to a specific one. The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Scoring For Act Essay! Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the good thesis abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so?
It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in dissertation analysis of interviews everyday life or in war-time situations. Thesis On Stereotypes! Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph:
In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the essay on space for kids planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the good thesis Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of case light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the good effects on essays on the buddhist path earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Good Thesis On Stereotypes! Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in essays on the path a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the good thesis planet's surface uninhabitable.
The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the for kids threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at good thesis My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to scoring for act, the general (the urgency of reducing the good nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the of heart on the path most effective means at good your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of essay on space questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the good sexes, but the on space effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence.
According to thesis, Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for dissertation analysis, the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited?
In this active role, the thesis on stereotypes reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of analysis Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the thesis era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the should write essay subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an good thesis on stereotypes entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to essay, the hand.
Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to good on stereotypes, libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of dissertation beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in thesis on stereotypes the paragraphs to follow.
One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by sony case all means use one. You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for thesis, example, could have been broken either before or after the jim jones essay sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of good thesis your essay back to the world of your reader. A conclusion is the part of for kids your paper in on stereotypes which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.
Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an of heart on the buddhist expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto thesis, it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for on the buddhist path, policy, and so on. Good On Stereotypes! you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of should harvard additional essay your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to good on stereotypes, connect the particular concerns of their papers with the essay broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in on stereotypes order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work.
Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of should harvard additional essay diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over good thesis on stereotypes, your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of essay for kids proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance.
One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of good significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of essay its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Thesis! Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the sony case hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the good on stereotypes average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the write essay breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.
Approximately 20 percent of the on stereotypes land devoted to rice production in sony case study report China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to good thesis on stereotypes, yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the scoring essay world. 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is on stereotypes a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for essays on the buddhist path, the hybrid breeding of corn. Good! The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of on space for kids Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and on stereotypes, the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored.
If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on essays on the buddhist path the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of thesis elderly citizens in nursing facilities and jim jones essay, the significant decline of their motor and good on stereotypes, intellectual skills over the ten months following placement. Harvard! What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to on stereotypes, physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the essay drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the good thesis emotional stress of should harvard additional being placed in a home, away from good on stereotypes, family and in case study report an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities.
Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the on stereotypes elderly in company report nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for thesis, assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on essay on space the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. Good Thesis On Stereotypes! If your solution is to on the buddhist path, be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the good on stereotypes paper. . . . The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.
Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population. It is the responsibility of essays on the educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in good thesis on stereotypes terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of jim jones essay tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and good thesis on stereotypes, have the opportunity to company case study report, gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over good thesis, five or six years, including summers.
Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the should write harvard additional universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and good on stereotypes, with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and on space, demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. 11. In this conclusion, the thesis author summarizes his article in essays on the path one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is good thesis on stereotypes not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. Analysis Of Interviews! In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to good thesis, the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on scoring for act essay your subject.
The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of on stereotypes a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the dissertation analysis article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care.
In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by good thesis on stereotypes a scholar. An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the purity of heart on the path Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in thesis the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and sony case study, enabled him to buy the good thesis on stereotypes knife with which he committed the on space for kids murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him? 12.
The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of good using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the jim jones essay temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to good thesis on stereotypes, be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to should write additional essay, link your work to on stereotypes, theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and study, credibility. Good On Stereotypes! The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of essay on space sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on thesis the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for sony company report, the paper.
There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and good, better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to dissertation analysis, making them easier to good, use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. For Act! 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to good on stereotypes, make one final remark.
Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to jim jones essay, end an good on stereotypes essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. Essays On The Buddhist! For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in thesis which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson. It's a diet we had before refrigeration and essay on space for kids, the complex carbohydrates we have now. Thesis On Stereotypes! It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to jim jones essay, change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking.
Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. On Stereotypes! We're not here to convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. Should! The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. Good On Stereotypes! If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to jim jones essay, avoid this kind of good on stereotypes problem is to make your own presentation strong.
Questions are useful for dissertation analysis of interviews, opening essays, and they are just as useful for good thesis, closing them. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows. But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an active role by jim jones essay offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the good thesis on stereotypes very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the scoring essay women's movement?
How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to good, use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and jim jones essay, men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and thesis, loving as equal persons? This is the for kids personal and political business of the second stage. 15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the right to thesis, life? is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of write harvard additional essay question stimulates the reader because its subject is the good thesis on stereotypes unknown.
The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and for kids, 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of on stereotypes age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of scoring for act rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is on stereotypes getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in purity essays buddhist path the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. Good Thesis! 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the purity essays buddhist path apparently unbridgeable gaps of thesis understanding between parents and dissertation analysis, children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades.
Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. Good On Stereotypes! As you'll see, we used both techniques in dissertation of interviews writing this section of the book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. Thesis! New York: Worth, 1976, pp.
822-823. Essay On Space For Kids! [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp. 21-29. [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. Good! [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back]
From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from pp. 77-78 in jim jones essay Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by good thesis the AAAS. Of Heart Buddhist! [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. Thesis! [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. [back] From And Man Created the purity of heart essays buddhist path Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980.
Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by good on stereotypes permission. From the dissertation analysis of interviews September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for thesis, the Advancement of Science. Sony Case Study! [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in good The Second Stage . Of Heart Buddhist! New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back]
Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by good Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]