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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in and christianity a variety of research paper subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in and christianity essay Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and writing school plans other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the plato, sources or to whole essay?
In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on plutarch on listening, the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the plato and christianity essay, student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on reflective essay, the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Essay! Abstract . Abstract is essays on listening a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to plato achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Letter Form! In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.
You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.
Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and plato and christianity it should be double spaced. Also, in case of on listening a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in plato and christianity essay APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to of a present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by and christianity author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Essay Tope! You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the plato essay, Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the short on tatya tope, font serif typeface for the text and plato sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in research violence the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.
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P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. An Example! Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. And Christianity! Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the writing school lesson plans, time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on and christianity essay, time! Learn More.
Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to on media the excellence of our services and and christianity essay the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to creative writing for high place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the essay, sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. Creative Writing Lesson Plans! If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and plato and christianity should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in letter form charge of the plato and christianity, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).
2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to research paper violence #8220;a caliph who had stepped out plato essay, from the writing for high school lesson plans, pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the and christianity, author or the year of publication is an example of a reflective already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Essay! Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in letter 1924 (Thomas).
Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at plato, least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the school 2011, essay and plato cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in on tatya alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of plato and christianity source: Book : Author, A. On Tatya! (Year of essay publication).
Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in ross school of business essay the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Essay! Title of article. Name of the an example reflective on english, web-site. And Christianity Essay! Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Cover Letter Form! Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to plato and christianity use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and on listening position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the and christianity essay, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in an example of a essay on english the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. Plato And Christianity Essay! A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top.
APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the essays on listening, course, the name of essay professor, and research on media the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in plato and christianity essay your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and creative writing figures. Plato And Christianity! Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.
In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the on listening, page. What to remember with the and christianity essay, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Essay! To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the plato and christianity essay, borrowed thought or idea. Plutarch Essays! When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to plato and christianity take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and of business 2011 the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is plato and christianity essay actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is creative writing school plans entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is plato complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed.
The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay tope, essay, citing your reference(s) is plato essay considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is for high plans a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the plato essay, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Short On Tatya Tope! As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of and christianity essay on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript.
Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on short essay tope, the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the plato essay, level of essays on listening professionalism it exudes.
As more complex topics are discussed, the plato essay, need for further research becomes a necessity. Short On Tatya! Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and and christianity essay citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is of a reflective essay on english important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and and christianity essay more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay.
P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Creative Writing For High School! Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of plato and christianity essay essay writing, its importance is essays on listening undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Management Information Systems - Ups Case Study. There are two sides to plato UPS's package tracking system: the essays, external, customer-oriented side, and essay, the internal company and employee oriented side. The input starts with customer with the cover form, creation of plato and christianity essay, a scannable bar-coded “smart” label which can be done from the UPS website or using a special software provided by UPS, both accessible via the internet. These labels will contain data about the form, sender, the destination, and plato essay, package arrival times. This data is received by paper UPS's central computer for processing and the information is plato and christianity then forwarded to one of their distribution centers where logistical planning will occur. UPS drivers are given a handheld Delivery Information Acquisition Device (DIAD) which can immediately record and an example of a reflective essay on english, upload pickup and delivery information and pictures of and christianity, recipient signature to the UPS network, called UPSnet, for storing and of a on english, processing. The data being sent from the DIAD is essay gathered from the scannable label on packages, recipient signatures captured, time card info, satellite feed of traffic patterns and ross school of business essay 2011, changing schedules. Finally, all this information's outputs will include the UPS intranet available company-wide to and christianity essay distribution centers, customer service centers, etc., and the internet via UPS's website or embedded UPS functions within corporate customer's own websites. The technologies at essays UPS include bar code scanning systems, wireless networks, large mainframe computers, handheld computers, the Internet, and and christianity, various softwares for tracking packages, calculating fees, maintaining customer accounts, and maintaining logistics.
Handheld DIADs are carried by every UPS driver and was developed to short on tatya tope immediately record and upload delivery information to the UPS network. And Christianity Essay? About. Fedex Case Study Information System. . ) which combine data and mathematical or analytical models (What if analysis, sensitivity analysis or dimensional analysis like OLAP for instance) for the semi-structured decisions and letter form, unstructured decision making. They are made by essay the business analysts and for high school lesson plans, “super users”. They help giving information not provided. Plato And Christianity? These systems also help senior management and executives to stick with performance information.
An example of analysis can be the cover letter, balanced scorecard method who emphasizes results/ Goals/Initiatives according to 4 dimensions: Finance, business process, customer and learning growth. When it comes to executives, DSS is called ESS (Executive Support Decision) in plato and christianity, this case data come from internal and an example essay on english, external data and drill-down capabilities. In the plato, video, a DSS is used to sort packages by hand when their labels cannot be read. Employees sort them thanks to creative writing school lesson a code referring to a destination. ? The video also shows the and christianity, use of the Database Management System (DBMS). It is the interfaces between the cover letter form, applications and physical data files. This software allows the creation and availability of a database that can be used by plato and christianity individual business applications. They can extract the data needed without modifying it. Thanks to Relational DMSM, which links tables together, a simple key can allow access to an entire table, it is called primary key.
In the video, we see that employees are using scanners all steps long. Thanks to the label containing a key, they have access to. Words: 3327 - Pages: 14. Management Information Systems - Ups Case Study. . their services and create new products. UPS launched a web-based post-sales Order Management System (OMS) that manages global service orders, routing strategies, and inventory storage and tracking of critical parts for hi-tech companies. They have also used their expertise to manage logistics and form, supply chain activities for other companies, creating a UPS Supply Chain Solutions division that provides a complete bundle of standardized services to subscribing companies at a fraction of what it would cost them to build their own systems and infrastructure.
Also, with the various tracking systems customer service satisfaction is and christianity very high. By really knowing their customers and serving them well, customers generally respond by returning and purchasing more. This raises revenues and profits, which has proved to be the case with UPS. With their systems they are able to have the right information at the right time to make an informed decision and decrease over or under-production, misallocation of resources, and increase response times. All of the things previously mentioned have given UPS the an example of a reflective, competitive advantage which not only has resulted in higher profits and sales, but have also allowed them to survive for as long as they have and will continue to pave the way for future survival. What would happen if UPS's information systems were not available?
Before the implementation of UPS's information systems, UPS was delivering 11.5 million packages a day for more than a million. Words: 902 - Pages: 4. . Management Information System (MIS) Term Paper: Business Process Management (BPM) Professor: Dr.Ijaz A.Qureshi Abstract: A business process model consists of a set of activity models and execution constraints between them. A business process instance represents a concrete case in and christianity essay, the operational business of a company, consisting of activity instances. Business Process Management has been referred to as a holistic management approach to aligning an organization’s business processes with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility and integration with technology. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It is short essay on tatya argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and plato essay, more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach.
Business Process Management includes methods, techniques and tools to support the design, enactment, management and writing for high school lesson plans, analysis of operational business processes. Plato And Christianity? It can be considered as an extension of classical workflow Management systems and approaches. Business Process Management has received much attention in the industrial engineering and management literature and an example of a, its benefits are well known. Hence, there is confusion among public managers about how business process management concepts should be implemented. Business Process Management (BPM) has been. Words: 3245 - Pages: 13.
. And Christianity? A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing five primary components: 1.) Hardware, 2.) Software, 3.) Data (information for decision making), 4.) Procedures (design, development and documentation), and 5.) People (individuals, groups, or organizations). Management information systems are distinct from other information systems, in that they are used to on tatya analyze and facilitate strategic and and christianity essay, operational activities. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to reflective on english improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Most business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and sometimes others, and grant degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS. Management Information Systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, organizations and plato and christianity essay, the relationships among them. MIS professionals help firms realize maximum benefit from investment in research on media violence, personnel, equipment, and business processes. MIS is a people-oriented field with an plato essay emphasis on. Words: 1023 - Pages: 5. . others - Due process Business Intelligence: describes how businesses collect, store, clean disseminate useful info to executives, managers, employees. Analytics of writing school lesson, Business Intelligence: it generates, - Production reports: predefined reports based on specific requirements. /casual users - Parameterized reports: pivot tables to filter data - Dashboards/scorecards: visual reports that represent performance data. /top mgt - Ad hoc query/search/report creation: customized reports by users./ middle mgt - Drill down: high-level data summaries, users drill it down to specific data. - Forecasts, scenarios, models: what if. Executives use balanced scorecard method by and christianity focusing on KPI (key performance indicators) for company’s internal financial information with customers, internal business processes, and learning growth.
BPM(business performance mgt) is another tool for essay tope, executives to and christianity essay translate the strategy they developed for their company into operational targets. GDSS(Group decision-support system) include hardware, software, and people, helps streamline group meetings communications by removing obstacles and using technology to increase the effectiveness of the reflective on english, decisions. Expert systems are a common form of artificial intelligence, they are used to assist humans in the decision making process. They rely on knowledge base built by humans based on their experiences knowledge. Plato And Christianity Essay? It’s the AI (artificial intelligence). Case-Based reasoning (CBR) combines the best. Words: 2473 - Pages: 10. Management Information System Application. . Warehouse and Outlet Managers are given a detailed tutorial training of the software.
This will help them in seeing the letter, convenience being provided by the software. And Christianity? This will also help them in accepting the change. * In order to essay 2011 guard against electricity short circuits, the plato and christianity, shop owner will ensure that the terminals are always connected to “Circuit Breakers” (mounted in panel boards to protect brand writing). Creative Writing For High School? * The owner already has Electricity generator installed at the outlet. The terminals will be connected to it at all times. Plato? * A technician will also be hired for emergency situations. Technical: Fixed Cost IT Plan The proposed solution has the following Computer Based Information System components: * Hardware: Computer; CPU, input and output devices, storage devices. * Software: Windows, iMagic, anti-virus software and firewalls. * Data: Information that will be fed into the computers * Procedures: policies of an example of a, governing the operation of the computer system i.e using iMagic for inventory management. Plato Essay? * Workers: Warehouse and Outlet managers are the most important components to an example of a reflective essay on english make the whole system work. Business Continuity Plan The system can work in the following disastrous scenarios: Scenario 1: Natural disaster like earthquake in which the terminals are destroyed and lost: the information files will all be backed up on cloud technology that can be accessed with internet connection at any given time and place. And Christianity Essay? Scenario 2: Virus. Words: 1853 - Pages: 8. Information Management Systems Case Study 4. . Case Study from Chapter 7: Apple, Google, and Microsoft Battle for your Internet Experience Business 5460, Management Information Systems March 30, 2014 Dr. Mical Ramim Provide a one page summary identifying major issues The battle between global giants, Apple, Google and Microsoft, is a fight that has been occurring for many years now.
All three companies have been hugely successful in different aspects of their industry. However, as our society’s technology continues to essay develop each company has had to make drastic changes to adapt to new and essay, upcoming trends. As discussed in the case study, the an example on english, perfect example of this necessary adaptation is a trending statistic that predicts a majority of users will begin browsing the internet on mobile devices versus the plato essay, traditional PC. This probable trend has led to a lively battle of innovation as each company struggles to paper violence be number one in the consumer internet experience. And Christianity Essay? Throughout this battle to the top each company has experienced their fair share of issues. Microsoft is perhaps one of the most famous and respected companies in the world. The corporation was founded April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates, an inventor known for creating one of the first user-friendly operating systems for creative for high, personal computers. Over the plato and christianity, decades the company has been a huge success, but not without its failures which often seem to be as of late. For High? What once may have been an internet experience that was easily dominated by Microsoft technology is now saturated. Words: 1052 - Pages: 5. . MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT: MR NUNKOO MOONESWAR RISHI CASE STUDY UPS GLOBAL OPERATIONS WITH THE DIAD 21.05.2014 Questions 1: List the plato and christianity essay, various ways that DIAD improves customer service.
UPS, that is, United Parcel Service, was started in the year 1907 and expanded in the year 1930s. On Tatya Tope? Today a multi-billion dollar investment in the technology drove the plato and christianity, growth of UPS over the last twenty five years beginning in 1990. This investment enabled the development of the DIAD (Delivery Information Acquisition Device). DIAD is a key element in UPS business technology platform. Today UPS delivery drivers more are efficient and effective and they are about 70,000 drivers who are wirelessly connected to research on media UPS databases. They deliver over 16 million packages daily to their customers in 220 countries and territories. DIAD has built in GPRS and CDMA cell phone, a modem to facilitate the and christianity, dial up access if necessary. These features enable UPS’ drivers to transmit real time data to short their UPS center. DIAD has GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) connectivity which provides the drivers with detailed directions for pick-up of packages in essay, order to locate the trucks and their packages. Creative Writing School Lesson? Drivers scan the package bar code, collect the receiver’s signature electronically. In overall, the and christianity, UPS technology infrastructure enables UPS to offer its customers many services, such as package tracking, freight planning, and freight truck packing optimization, in addition to the basic.
Words: 935 - Pages: 4. . What is an information system? What are its management, organization and creative school, technology components? 1) Information system is a system which collect process, store and distribute all the disordered and complicated information from an organization’s environment. By doing so, it transfers all the raw data into a set of interrelated components, so that it can support decision making, coordination, controlling and analyzing and visualization. 2) Management dimension of information systems involves leadership, strategy, and essay, managers’ organizational behaviors, etc. 3) Organizational dimension of information systems involves organization’s hierarchy, functional specialties, business processes, organizational culture, and political interest groups. 4) Technology dimension of an example on english, information systems involves computer hardware, software, data management technology and plato, networking/telecommunications technology (including the research, Internet) 1) Identify the steps that are performed in the add/drop process of UM. ? According to the timetable and their aspiration, students choose some courses to be added or dropped. Then they submit the plato essay, add/drop submission to the system. ? After capturing all the research, submissions, the add/drop system coordinate all the plato and christianity, data in to essays on listening information. Overseeing the whole courses arrangement, the and christianity essay, system divides the submission into groups. One is refused group, for there is cover no quota left for submission.
The other one is plato and christianity approved group, because there are still. Words: 438 - Pages: 2. Summary Management Information System. . MIS Summary chapter 5 ‘’IT infrastructure and emerging technologies’’ -IT infrastructure: shared technology resources that provide the platform for firm’s specific information system applications. (Including investments) Service platform (Figure 5.1, page 196) 1. Computing platforms that connect employees customers and suppliers in an digital environment. 2. Telecommunication services (provide data, voice and school essay, video connectivity) 3. Data management services that store and manage corporate data 4. Application software services (that provide enterprise-wide capabilities) 5. Physical facilities management services that develop and manage physical installations 6. IT management services that plan and develop infrastructure, coordinate with business units for IT services, manage accounting and provide project management services 7. IT standard services that that provides information which system to be used 8. IT education services that provide training in essay, how to use systems for employees 9. IT research and development services Evolution era’s IS (Figure 5.2!, page 198) 1. General purpose mainframe and research paper, minicomputer era (1959- present) =IBM mainframes run by essay professionals. Of A Reflective Essay On English? Changed by minicomputers which was cheaper and plato, decentralized computing.
2. Personal computer era (1981- now) =First real computer. Wintel PC became standard desktop. 3. Client server era (1983- now) =laptops (Clients) are networked to cover server computer that provides client computer. Words: 5045 - Pages: 21. . And Christianity? 138, pp.
39–52. Christine Curley (2015). What is Application Software- Definition, Example and Types. Essays? http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-application-software-definition-examples-types.html Cragg, P.B.; Zinatelli, N. The evolution of plato and christianity essay, information systems in small firms. Inf. Manag. Plutarch On Listening? 1995,29, 1–8. Dawn M. Russell and Anne M. Hoag, (2004).
People and information technology in the supply chain. International Journal of and christianity, Physical Distribution Logistics Management, Vol. Essay? 34 Iss 2 pp. 102 – 122. Received from; http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/09600030410526914 Douglas, M. (2015, 10 23). Technology: The Leading Edge. Retrieved from Inbound Logistics: http://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/technology-the-leading-edge/ Duncombe, R.; Heeks, R. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) and small enterprise in Africa: Lessons from Botswana. 2001.
Ela Goyal, Seema Purohit and Manju Bhagat, (2010). And Christianity? Factors that affect information and communication technology usage: A case study in management education. Journal of Information Technology Management, Vol.XXI, No.4. Received from; http://jitm.ubalt.edu/XXI-4/article4.pdf Margerat Rouse, 2007. Telecom Network Management. http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/definition/telecommunications Margerat Rouse and Allan Leake, 2010.
Database Design and Modeling. http://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com/definition/database Martin C. K. and Daniel D G. C.,(2013) The History of Internet: The Missing Narrative. Words: 11702 - Pages: 47. Management Information Systems - Ups Case Study. . PRIVACY ACT NOTICE: The VA will not disclose information collected on this form to cover letter form any source other than what has been authorized under the Privacy Act of 1974 or Title 38, code of Federal Regulations 1.576 for routine uses (i.e., civil or criminal law enforcement, congressional communications, epidemiological or research studies, the collection of money owed to the United States, litigation in and christianity essay, which the United States is ross school 2011 a party or has an interest, the administration of VA programs and delivery of VA benefits, verification of identity and status, and personnel administration) as identified in the VA system of records. And Christianity? 58VA21/22/28, Compensation, Pension, Education and Vocational Rehabilitation Records - VA, and published in the Federal Register. Short Essay On Tatya? Your obligation to respond is required to obtain or retain benefits.
Giving us your Social Security Number (SSN) account information is mandatory. And Christianity? Applicants are required to provide their SSN under Title 38, U.S.C. Plutarch On Listening? 5701(c)(1). The VA will not deny an plato individual benefits for refusing to provide his or her SSN unless the disclosure is cover required by a Federal Statute of law in effect prior to January 1, 1975, and still in effect. The requested information is considered relevant and necessary to determine maximum benefits provided under the law. The responses you submit are considered confidential (38 U.S.C. Plato Essay? 5701).
Information that you furnish may be utilized in computer matching programs with other Federal or state agencies for. Words: 279 - Pages: 2. . Systems? 36 • Globalization Challenges and Opportunities: A Flattened World 38 ?Interactive Session: Management Running the Business from the Palm of Your Hand 39 The Emerging Digital Firm 41 • Strategic Business Objectives of on tatya, Information Systems 42 1.2 Perspectives on Information Systems 45 What Is an Information System? 45 • Dimensions of Information Systems 48 • It Isn’t Just Technology: A Business Perspective on Information Systems 52 ?Interactive Session: Technology UPS Competes Globally with Information Technology 53 Complementary Assets: Organizational Capital and the Right Business Model 56 1.3 Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems 58 Technical Approach 58 • Behavioral Approach 58 • Approach of This Text: Sociotechnical Systems 59 Learning Track Modules: How Much Does IT Matter?, Information Systems and Your Career, The Mobile Digital Platform 61 Review Summary 62 • Key Terms 63 • Review Questions 63 • Discussion Questions 64 • Hands-On MIS Projects 64 • Video Cases 65 • Collaboration and Teamwork Project 65 ?Case Study: Mashaweer 66 Chapter 2 Global E-business and Collaboration 70 ?Opening Case: Telus Embraces Social Learning 71 2.1 Business Processes and plato, Information Systems 73 Business Processes 73 • How Information Technology Improves Business Processes 75 2.2 Types of Information Systems 75 Systems for creative writing for high school plans, Different Management Groups 76 ?Interactive Session: Technology Schiphol International Hub 78 5 6 Contents. Words: 218843 - Pages: 876. Case Study on Tate and Lyle; Management Information System. . Inventory report KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OPERATIONAL LEVEL ? Return on and christianity, Assets STRATEGIC LEVEL Daily stock cleared, purchase returns ROCE MANAGEMENT LEVEL KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OPERATIONAL LEVEL ? Balance sheets STRATEGIC LEVEL MANAGEMENT LEVEL Interest cover Net debt KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OPERATIONAL LEVEL ? STRATEGIC LEVEL incident rate analysis MANAGEMENT LEVEL Safety Lost-time accident rate KNOWLEDGE LEVEL Accident report OPERATIONAL LEVEL Accident log ABIODUN EMMANUEL TAIWO L0592LYLY0411 MIS CASE STUDY 4.4 INFORMATION SYSTEMS RECOMMENDATION Information Systems can be referred to as a set of interrelated components that collects, retrieve, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. Ross School Of Business Essay 2011? Below is plato essay a recommendation of a number of information system that will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of services in the various managerial decision making levels of ross of business essay 2011, Tate and Lyle.
Information System RECOMMENDATIONS RESOURCE PLANNINNG SYSTEM: In alignment with the strategic model of Tate and Lyle which encourages focus on a key area of growth, This complex mathematical tool will through a number of simulations and projections, help the senior managers make decisions as to which area of production is plato and christianity essay best profitable to allocate more resources for increased growth. It will also assist in drawing out a long-term resource allocation plan for the.
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Analysis of a Current TV Comedy Show Essay Sample. It is definitely Seinfeld#8217;s unmatched take on life#8217;s most mundane moments that makes it a tremendously successful comedy. Plato Essay? Seinfeld is a TV comedy often ironically referred to as #8220;the show about nothing,#8221; which actually details the lives of letter four single people living in New York City. It is the plato and christianity, cleverly written plots, snappy dialogue and crafty, genuine characters that make Seinfeld distinct from other similar TV situation comedies. The first specific element that makes Seinfeld such a successful comedy is that of characterisation. The show#8217;s central character is Jerry (played by creative writing school plans, Jerry Seinfeld), a stand-up comedian who spends his time floating from gig to gig and whose personal life is plato and christianity essay, filled with never-quite-right girlfriends. Most of the action takes place in the living room and kitchen of Jerry#8217;s Manhattan apartment. The aspects of Jerry#8217;s nature that make him a unique character on the show are his constant focus on the trivial things about every day life and his superficial attitude toward relationships. It is essays, Seinfeld the actor who makes this character particularly funny.
Jerry is overacted, with endless big gestures and forced expression. Plato And Christianity Essay? However, it is often these things that, instead of detracting from the character, make the essay, character authentic. It could be argued that it is the shallow nature of the character that makes that overacting and forced expression necessary to make the character himself believable. Joining Jerry in the show is his childhood best friend, George Constanza, (Jason Alexander) who is a character easily deemed the and christianity, stereotypical loser. The direct juxtaposition of Jerry#8217;s success and George#8217;s failure leads to the big laughs. George is exactly the kind of person the audience can relate to; even if they are not like him, they are sure to know someone like him. George finds it impossible to hold or keep jobs and romances, even though he spends all of on media violence his time cooking up schemes to achieve both.
Examples of some of these schemes would be the times he tried to cheat on an IQ test and wore a wedding band in desperate (and unsuccessful) attempts to impress women. It. is George#8217;s authenticity as the short, bald, unsuccessful character that makes him almost endearing to audiences. Jerry#8217;s neighbour Kramer, (played by Michael Richards) is plato, most definitely one of American TV#8217;s most memorable characters. He is essentially quirky, over-the-top, inventive and in many cases, mysterious. Kramer is most memorable for the way he consistently steals the scene as he enters a room, though he has few lines and few plots are focused on his character. Kramer also has no visible means of financial support (except for Jerry#8217;s refrigerator) and a bizarre ability to creative for high school plans latch onto opportunities he seems completely inappropriate for. Michael Richards#8217; competent acting and comic skills make Kramer believable and genuinely wacky. In addition to this, it is the expert delivery of Kramer#8217;s few lines that contribute to the show#8217;s comic effectiveness as a whole.
It is Jerry#8217;s ex, Elaine Benes, (played by Julia Louis-Dreyfus) who provides so much more than merely the plato, token female perspective to the show#8217;s principle four characters. Not only does she contribute her own parade of bad dates and workplace sagas, Elaine is a character known for her outrageous dancing and her ability to say it like it is. Although Elaine is often used for a female outlook on the plot lines, many of the plutarch, episodes revolve principally around the details of her life. Plato And Christianity Essay? Louis-Dreyfus#8217; superb comic skills in an example reflective on english the delivery of snappy one-liners and well-timed observations make Elaine a successful character. In addition to the four principle characters, it is the long list of quirky relatives, friends, dates and colleagues that contribute to the distinct characterisation in Seinfeld. Examples of these colourful characters include George#8217;s insane father (played by Jerry Stiller), the Soup Nazi, Jerry#8217;s arch-rival Newman, lawyer Jackie Chiles and Elaine#8217;s boss and catalogue mogul J. Peterman.
These characters add to the reality and provide many examples of people an audience can relate to. It can be seen, therefore, that characterisation is at the core of Seinfeld#8217;s effectiveness as a comedy. The contrasts between the characters as well as the actors#8217; skill at playing off each other makes the plato, show genuinely funny. In addition to this, it is the authentic characters that audiences can easily relate to that make this show effective. Another significant element of the show that makes it a comedy is the identifiable and realistic plots.
Seinfeld could be described as a commentary on modern society when you are single and living in the #8216;big city#8217;. Though the show is renowned for it#8217;s depiction of a #8216;show about nothing,#8217; it is most definitely about something. Plot lines focus on every day life, relationships, family life, city living, issues in the workplace and an example on english, many of the other small details of life. Seinfeld attempts to and christianity portray these every day things as mundane, however, for the four characters, they always end in bizarre and completely outrageous ways. For this show, it is in the every day situations that the humour comes from.
It is for of business 2011, this reason Seinfeld is described as a situation comedy, that is, a comedy where the humour derives directly from the situations the plato and christianity, characters are placed in. Audiences find these situations true to research on media violence life, and plato and christianity, when combined with the characterisation, these realistic and identifiable plots make Seinfeld an effective comedy. The most appropriate evidence of these identifiable plots can be seen in an examination of the settings used most commonly in the show. The characters move quickly from Jerry#8217;s apartment to the coffee shop and on to a local Chinese restaurant. Creative For High School Plans? The show also consists of short scenes in plato essay George or Elaine#8217;s workplaces, the parking lot of a local shopping complex or Jerry#8217;s car mechanic#8217;s workshop. These are examples of not only identifiable, routine places, but also indicative of the familiar plots that develop around these situations. Though Seinfeld rarely expresses political bias or commentary on current political figures, the cover letter form, show often critiques or remarks on other celebrities. Seinfeld is also known for its blunt, every-man attitudes towards many, at times, controversial social issues. Without trying to plato essay preach ideas or attitudes towards issues, Seinfeld takes these issues and ross essay 2011, makes the commentary humourous. An example of this would be the episode where Jerry tries to explain to Elaine how a #8220;black and white#8221; cookie is an example of two cultures living harmoniously and how humanity could learn a lot from that cookie. By taking social issues at plato and christianity essay the forefront of an audience#8217;s consciousness and using simple analogies (more often than not involving food in essay on tatya this show) is a technique used to plato make the comedy relevant to the audience in an enjoyable manner.
Another important element of this TV program is that of the snippets of stand up comedy played at the beginning and end of each episode. The issues discussed in these sections often introduce or conclude the issues presented in the episode and short tope, provide a different kind of comedy for the audience to enjoy. Performed and plato, written by Jerry Seinfeld, the stand up comedy adds to the show#8217;s effectiveness as a whole. It is therefore evident that it is Seinfeld#8217;s unmatched take on life#8217;s most mundane moments that makes it a tremendously successful comedy. Plutarch On Listening? It is the cleverly written, reality-based plots, snappy dialogue and crafty, genuine characters that make Seinfeld distinct from other similar TV situation comedies. For a distinctly quirky take on life in the big city and episodes filled with snappy one-liners and outrageous characters, Seinfeld is a show that is guaranteed to satisfy your need for genuine humour.
Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analysis of a Current TV Comedy Show. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Essay? Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of of a on english a Current TV Comedy Show. ‘Identify and evaluate the presence and execution of Shakespearean comedy tropes in plato and christianity essay A Midsummer#8217;s Night#8217;s Dream’ He is ostensibly the greatest play write ever, with the production of over letter form, 37#8230; Twelfth Night: elements of comedy and irony. Trevor Nunn#8217;s adaptation of #8220;Twelfth Night#8221; is a masterpiece of insight and nuance. Instead of and christianity essay simply playing this gender-bending comedy of mistaken identity, the director highlights the dark undertones of#8230; The Rivals: an letter form, anti-sentimental comedy. In the Restoration period England witnessed the emergence of plato ‘comedies of manners’ showing the ross school of business essay 2011, confused and sanctimonious lifestyles of the rising middle class and upper class then “during the and christianity, 18th#8230; The Merchant of short on tatya Venice: A Romantic Comedy.
The Merchant of Venice is one of Shakespeare’s romantic comedies, probably written in 1596 and and christianity, 1597, and forms one of a group of cover form such comedies, along with The Two Gentlemen#8230; A Chip of Glass Ruby and and christianity essay, The Surest thing in Show Business. Research Paper? A successful story needs powerful characters to bring the story alive for the readers, and skillful characterization is and christianity, needed for such purpose. Characterization is the method used by a writer#8230; The Divine Comedy. Mid-way through his life and of business essay 2011, faced with an essay, ignominious end, Dante Alighieri wrote his greatest work, The Divine Comedy. We can understand Dante#8217;s motive in writing this epic by reading#8230;
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The Family Check-Up in Early Childhood: A Case Study of Intervention Process and Change. This article describes a case study in plato and christianity essay the use of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-based and ecological preventive intervention for children at risk for problem behavior. The FCU is an assessment-driven intervention that utilizes a health maintenance model; emphasizes motivation for change; and offers an adaptive, tailored approach to intervention. Cover Form! This case study follows one Caucasian family through their initial assessment and plato and christianity subsequent treatment for essay, their toddler daughter#x02019;s conduct problems over a 2-year period. Plato! Clinically meaningful improvements in child and family functioning were found despite the presence of child, parent, and neighborhood risk factors. The case is discussed with respect to the findings from a current multisite randomized control trial of the FCU and its application to other populations. There is growing interest in identifying young children at risk for early and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior (Shaw #x00026; Gross, 2008), motivated by several studies of early-starting antisocial youth (Moffitt, 1993). Several researchers have documented that compared to late starters (who begin delinquent activity in mid-to late adolescence), early starters (who typically initiate antisocial activities before age 10) show a more persistent and chronic trajectory of antisocial behavior extending from middle childhood to adulthood (Moffitt #x00026; Caspi, 2001; Patterson #x00026; Yoeger, 1993). Early starters represent approximately 6% to 7% of the general population of youth yet are responsible for almost half of all adolescent crime and three fourths of violent crimes (Offord, Boyle, #x00026; Racine, 1991). During the past 2 decades, prevention scientists have focused on of business essay 2011 generating interventions for plato and christianity, preventing early-starting pathways from developing, including programs for expectant mothers with first-born children (Olds, 2002) and preschool-age children (Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997).
However, despite research suggesting that early-starting pathways of antisocial behavior can be identified as early as age 2 to on tatya tope, 3 (Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, #x00026; Nagin, 2003), few interventions have focused on the developmental transition of the #x0201c;terrible 2s,#x0201d; a time of great maturational change (Shaw #x00026; Bell, 1993). The Family Check-Up (FCU) is plato and christianity essay, a preventive intervention that has been adapted specifically to address the normative challenges parents face during the terrible 2s, particularly in school high-risk environments where these normative challenges are more likely to plato, lead to negative outcomes (Dishion et al., in cover press; Shaw, Dishion, Supplee, Gardner, #x00026; Arnds, 2006). Our article discusses a case study that follows one family through their involvement in the FCU. The FCU was initially developed and shown to be efficacious in reducing problem behavior among adolescents (Connell, Dishion, Yasui, #x00026; Kavanagh, in press; Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). However, it has recently been associated with reductions in young children#x02019;s conduct problems and internalizing problems, as well as improvements in plato essay maternal depression, parental involvement, and positive parenting in two independent, randomly controlled trials (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Connell, Wilson, #x00026; Gardner, 2008). In these studies, changes in maternal positive parenting and for high depression were found to mediate improvements in child problem behavior. The FCU model differs from traditional clinical models and practice in plato and christianity three important ways: it utilizes a health maintenance model, derives much of its power from a comprehensive assessment, and emphasizes motivating change. In contrast to letter form, the standard clinical model, the health maintenance approach of the FCU explicitly promotes periodic contact with families (yearly at a minimum) over the course of key developmental transitions.
Whereas traditional clinical models are activated in response to clinical pathology, the health maintenance model involves regular periodic contact between client and provider to proactively prevent problems. Examples of health maintenance models include the plato use of semiannual cleanings in dentistry and letter well-baby check-ups in pediatrics. Another key difference from traditional clinical practice is the FCU#x02019;s explicit focus on providing a comprehensive assessment of plato essay child and family functioning. Research Paper On Media! Data obtained from assessments are shared with families in feedback sessions to enhance motivation for change (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002). Feedback sessions are often followed by family management meetings (Forgatch, Patterson, #x00026; DeGarmo, 2005) to promote change in plato and christianity parenting and of a child problem behavior. The comprehensive assessment drives the intervention, providing detailed information about domains of child (e.g., negative emotionality, child behavior problems), family (e.g., parental depression, marital quality), and community-level (e.g., neighborhood dangerousness) risk factors that past research has shown to be directly related to essay, the development of early-onset conduct problems. In addition, there is a primary focus on evaluating caregiving practices through direct observation of parent-child interaction.
In the case of the FCU for toddlers, this task is accomplished by essay, having parent#x02013;child dyads participate in a series of structured (e.g., clean-up and teaching) and semistructured (e.g., preparing a meal and serving it to the child) tasks. The FCU is also #x0201c;ecological#x0201d; in its emphasis on improving children#x02019;s adjustment across settings by motivating positive parenting practices and involvement in those settings. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment allows tailoring and adaptation, in that the intervention is #x0201c;fit#x0201d; to the family#x02019;s circumstances and their desires for plato, more or less or different forms of intervention. The FCU utilizes two main components to facilitate change: motivational interviewing and essay family management practices. The motivational interviewing component is based on Miller and Rollnick#x02019;s (2002) work using the and christianity Drinker#x02019;s Check-Up, in which assessment data regarding the negative consequences of alcohol abuse on plutarch on listening individual#x02019;s work and family life are shared in a feedback interview with clients. Plato And Christianity! This approach has been shown to be as effective as 28 days of costly inpatient treatment for short on tatya, reducing problem drinking in adults (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002).
In working with families of young children, the FCU feedback session is designed to elicit motivation for the parent(s) to and christianity, change problematic behavior in their child, which is often achieved by modifying parenting behavior (Forgatch et al., 2005) or aspects of the caregiving context that compromise parenting quality. Whereas motivational interviewing was originally developed for adult drinkers, it has been incorporated into the FCU model to engage parents in preventive interventions. In one study of the FCU with parents of adolescents, analyses comparing those adolescents showing significant reductions in substance use and antisocial behavior to those who did not indicated that motivational interviewing was the key strategy for promoting change (Connell et al., in press). After addressing motivation, the FCU provides options for intervention. The therapist (i.e., Parent Consultant) may provide referrals for help with problems outside of parenting (e.g., language development) or work with families themselves on creative writing school lesson these issues depending on his or her expertise (e.g., parental depression, marital therapy); however, the core of most intervention addresses family management issues. Family management includes a collective set of parenting skills, commonly referred to as Parent Management Training (PMT), based on social learning principles of reinforcement and modeling (Forgatch et al., 2005; Patterson, 1982; Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997). PMT has been consistently associated with improvement in parenting and plato and christianity essay reductions in child conduct problems (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005; Patterson, Reid, #x00026; Dishion, 1992) and has been formally deemed an #x0201c;empirically supported treatment#x0201d; (Chambless #x00026; Ollendick, 2001). PMT focuses on four main skill sets for the parents of young children: limit setting, proactive parenting, positive reinforcement, and relationship building. Using PMT typically involves providing parents with a rationale to stimulate interest, careful explanation of new skills, and in-session practice using role plays and in creative writing plans vivo practice with the child. Plato And Christianity Essay! In the letter FCU, PMT is applied to and christianity, specific behavior problems highlighted in research violence the assessment.
THE FCU IN THE EARLY STEPS MULTISITE STUDY. The current case illustrates how the FCU integrates basic research on plato and christianity essay the developmental antecedents of early-starting pathways with validated methods for plutarch essays on listening, effecting change in young children#x02019;s conduct problems. The case was drawn from the Early Steps Multisite Study (ESMS), which is the second randomized control trial to test the effectiveness of the plato essay FCU with young children. The ESMS is an early intervention project aimed at reducing early-onset conduct problems among high-risk families with toddlers and offers the essay tope opportunity to examine the efficacy of the FCU with a nonclinical yet high-risk sample of families whose children are at elevated risk for early-starting conduct problems. Plato And Christianity Essay! The ESMS examines the efficacy of the FCU among 731 low-income families with toddlers recruited between 2002 and 2003 from Women, Infants, and on listening Children Nutritional Supplement programs in the metropolitan areas of plato and christianity Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Eugene, Oregon; and Charlottesville, Virginia. The current case was recruited from the Pittsburgh site.
Families were approached at Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement offices and invited to participate if they had a son or daughter between 2 years 0 months and 2 years 11 months of age, following a screen to ensure that they met the study criteria by having socioeconomic, family, and=or child risk factors for child conduct problems. Families who met the cover form screening criteria and agreed to participate were contacted by research assistants to schedule the initial home assessment. During the initial home assessment, described in detail next, examiners carefully reviewed a comprehensive consent form with each primary caregiver. Families were informed about the reason for conducting the research, the source of funding, study procedures (i.e., description of random assignment procedures and intervention), risks and benefits, payment, their right to withdraw at any time, and confidentiality. Regarding confidentiality, participants were informed that they would not be identified by essay, name in any publication of research results unless they signed a separate form giving their permission. The FCU intervention involves at least three sessions. First is the in-home family assessment. The second session involves rapport building via the Parent Consultant#x02019;s (PC#x02019;s) initial interview with the creative writing school lesson plans caregiver(s), referred to as the Get-to-Know-You (GTKY) visit.
The third is a feedback session during which the plato essay PC discusses the results of the assessment and initial interview with attention focused on research paper violence the caregiver#x02019;s readiness to change and the delineation of specific change options. The assessment, which is the first component of the FCU, typically takes place in the family#x02019;s home when research assistants visit the family to collect questionnaire and observational data. The assessment, which lasts 2.5 hr, is organized by three central theoretical domains: (a) family management, (b) sociocultural contexts and resources, and (c) problem behavior at home and in alternative care settings. Careful attention was given to essay, selecting measures that could provide useful information in each of the aforementioned domains. When possible, constructs within each domain are measured using multiple informants (parents, other care providers, observers) and methods. Writing For High Lesson Plans! This assessment provides a wealth of information about plato and christianity, child behavior, parenting skills, family dynamics, and life stressors; it also sets the stage for the therapeutic contact between caregivers and parent consultants. The initial contact between the PC and the family occurs when the PC calls to set up the GTKY session. At this time, the letter PC introduces himself or herself, briefly explains the plato and christianity essay intervention portion of the study, and invites the parent to participate in an introductory meeting and a feedback session. The caregivers#x02019; first session with their PC, the GTKY visit, is usually held in the family#x02019;s home. The GTKY visit focuses on developing a collaborative framework for subsequent intervention activities by emphasizing rapport building and exploring concerns with respect to parenting and the family context (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). Caregivers also provide information about family resources (e.g., help of ross of business essay 2011 extended family members, strong marital relationship) and liabilities (e.g., unstable housing, a father who is incarcerated).
By the end of this visit, caregivers have discussed their concerns and perceptions of their motivation for change. The PC works to ensure that caregivers feel understood and plato clarifies discrepancies between caregivers#x02019; goals and current family functioning. Finally, the PC discusses the purpose of the feedback session and how it will be used to review and address caregivers#x02019; identified concerns. Essays! For example, given a concern about noncompliance and temper tantrums, the PC will review the assessment with attention to plato and christianity, specific strategies that might help improve the cooperation between the caregiver and the child. The third session of the FCU, the family feedback session, takes place at the family#x02019;s home or at an ESMS office, whichever is essay on tatya, preferable to the family.
Case conceptualization is a critical feature of the feedback session and and christianity is informed by essay on tatya, both the assessment and GTKY visit. Family change is approached in a realistic, stepwise fashion, focusing first on plato essay issues of safety and security, then moving to issues of behavior management, parenting skills, and creative writing relationship building. The feedback session involves a delicate balance among reporting the plato essay facts about strengths and problems, building motivation for change, and maintaining rapport with parent(s). The feedback session is a collaborative process, one in which the plutarch on listening PC delivers the factual information from the assessment and frequently checks in with parents about their perspectives (see Figure 1 ). An emphasis on strengths helps build rapport and therapeutic alliance with the family while encouraging maintenance of and christianity essay positive behaviors. Statements about problem areas are framed in a way that reflect the current research findings and in doing so, ground the information in a meaningful way for letter form, parents. The PC tailors the feedback material so that it takes into consideration the plato essay contextual factors of the family, including cultural variation, child development, family structure, socioeconomics, and community and neighborhood factors. At the end of the feedback session, the creative school PC discusses a menu of family-based interventions with the caregivers.
The intervention options stem from previous work using the FCU and focus groups with parents (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). These options include (a) monthly to weekly follow-up support, either in-person or by phone; (b) assistance with specific child behavior problems or parent issues; (c) PMT; (d) preschool/day care consultations; and (e) community referrals. Essay! The PC encourages the parents to choose the level and type of services that best meet the family#x02019;s needs. The family chosen for this case study qualified for creative writing school, inclusion in the ESMS based on the presence of sociodemographic risk (i.e., low income and educational attainment), child risk (i.e., high levels of conduct problems and high levels of parent-child conflict), and family risk (i.e., elevated maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles). In addition to using a pseudonym, identifying information about the family has been altered to protect their confidentiality. Essay! At the time of the age 2 assessment, the Smith family consisted of the mother, a 34-year-old Caucasian female; the father, a 36-year-old Caucasian male; and five children living in the home (ranging from 11 months to 15 years). The Target Child (TC) is their daughter who was 2 years old. The mother was a stay-at-home parent and the father was an paper unemployed former bus driver. Neither parent held a high school diploma. This marriage was the mother#x02019;s third with multiple children by each husband, including two children with her current husband. Plato And Christianity! The father had children from a previous marriage with whom he has no contact.
The mother and TC participated in a home-based assessment, during which the mother completed questionnaires about TC#x02019;s behavior and her own well-being. Well-established measures were used when possible (see Table 1 ), and research paper violence PCs were trained to code the videotaped tasks using an observation manual (Veltman et al., 2003) derived from research with families from similar high-risk environments (e.g., Shaw et al., 2003). Both mother and child participated in observational tasks, including clean-up, teaching, waiting, and meal preparation tasks. The father was not present for plato and christianity essay, the home visit but did complete and return his questionnaires 1 week later. Results from the assessment measures and observational tasks are noted in Table 2 and 2011 were incorporated into and christianity essay, the feedback session. Both parents were present for the GTKY at age 2. The mother was very talkative during the 1-hr interview.
The mother provided a detailed history of the writing lesson plans family and talked openly about her own struggles with depression. She reported that she refused antidepressant medication because of unpleasant side effects. She also talked about an ongoing source of familial stress: severe harassment by her second ex-husband despite the plato procurement of several Protection from Abuse orders. The harassment by the ex-husband was persistent over the course of 2 years, and both parents expressed a sense of hopelessness about its resolution. In addition, the family lived in a high-crime neighborhood, as described by both parents and plutarch observed by the PC and assessment team. The parents expressed their intention to move to another part of the plato city within the next year. When asked about the TC, the mother reported concerns about the child#x02019;s developmental progress and the father reported that she had a #x0201c;bad attitude.#x0201d; When asked about the TC#x02019;s behavior problems, both parents agreed that it was #x0201c;her anger.#x0201d; Both parents reported that TC had a #x0201c;quick temper and lashes out,#x0201d; hit her siblings, and yelled frequently.
The parents also agreed that she had an #x0201c;emotional problem,#x0201d; referring to her temper tantrums. Research On Media Violence! The parents did not spontaneously state any positive qualities about the TC; when asked, the mother reported that she felt that she had a good relationship with the TC. Feedback Preparation and Case Conceptualization. Consistent with typical practice, the feedback session at age 2 was held 1 week after the GTKY. The PC used videotaped and questionnaire data from the assessment to prepare a Child and Family Profile (see Figure 1 ) designed to visually represent the and christianity child#x02019;s and family#x02019;s strengths and areas of concern. Areas of strength and concern were determined based on published norms, when available, and data from similar high-risk samples (Shaw et al., 2003). At a broader level, components of the data were used to generate a conceptualization of the family#x02019;s strengths and challenges so the review follows a logical storyline for the parents. In the on media violence FCU process, the PC prepares a comprehensive report about the family#x02019;s and child#x02019;s strengths and potential problems based on the assessment. Scoring the Smith#x02019;s assessment measures revealed a number of strengths, including that the mother and father viewed their marital relationship positively and were willing to participate in the feedback session. In addition, the essay mother felt confident in her parenting skills (see Table 2 ). When coding the observational tasks, the PC observed that the mother was responsive to her daughter#x02019;s bids for positive attention and demonstrated a warm and affectionate relationship with her. The child demonstrated strengths in on tatya tope her language ability, as indexed by a score at the 70th percentile on the McArthur Communicative Development Index (Fenson et al., 2000).
Several areas of concern were evident, most notably the TC#x02019;s level and breadth of problem behavior and the mother#x02019;s level of depressive symptoms. Plato And Christianity Essay! According to mother#x02019;s report on two different measures of child behavior, the TC was well into the clinical range for both internalizing and externalizing problems (see Table 2 ). Based on 45 min of observational data, she was found to be in the clinical range for noncompliance (i.e., follows directions less than 50% of the time) and in the borderline clinical range for positive play (i.e., exhibits neutral to positive affect) and aggression (two to five instances of aggression toward both objects and people). Compared with other girls her age, the TC appeared to be on a worrisome behavioral trajectory. There were some areas of school 2011 concern regarding the mother, namely, that she reported levels of depressive symptoms consistent with clinical depression, a high level of daily stress, and a high level of conflict with her daughter. Mother also demonstrated few skills for setting limits and being proactive during observational tasks.
The family#x02019;s residence in a high crime neighborhood was also seen as an and christianity essay important factor that impacted their level of stress (see Table 2 ). The combined clinical picture for the TC and mother suggested that there were deficits in parenting skills, perhaps because of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptomatology and daily stress, which contributed to the child#x02019;s behavioral and emotional problems. In addition, the child was demonstrating high levels of essay 2011 behavioral and emotional problems, which were posited to contribute to coercive cycles of interaction with her mother (Patterson, 1982). A related concern was that if the mother and plato essay child did not find more positive ways to interact, both child and maternal behavior would become exacerbated, moving the child into a more entrenched and less malleable trajectory of problem behavior. Interventions aimed at improving these areas could capitalize on existing family strengths, namely, the positive marital relationship, parental willingness to participate, and TC#x02019;s language skills. Essays On Listening! The family#x02019;s high crime neighborhood and harassment from the ex-husband were also noted on the Child and Family Profile and and christianity essay incorporated into the feedback session, reflecting the family#x02019;s particular needs and context.
During the age 2 feedback, the short essay Smith family expressed a willingness to plato, receive information about their daughter and plutarch essays on listening some hope that they might receive help to better manage her problem behavior. After a brief rapport-building introduction, the PC began the feedback session and asked the plato essay self-assessment questions (#x0201c;Over the course of the assessment, what did you learn about TC? What stood out for you?#x0201d;). Both parents responded by on listening, stating that their child #x0201c;behaves better when other people are around.#x0201d; The PC clarified that the and christianity mother believed that the videotaped portions of the assessment reflected better-than-usual behavior from the TC. After orienting the parents to the FCU profile and plutarch essays on listening explaining the feedback process, the PC discussed the identified areas of strength and plato and christianity concern (see Figure 1 ). The Child and research violence Family Profile begins with a focus on child behavior in an effort to align parents with a shared focus about plato and christianity essay, their child#x02019;s well-being. The PC informed the parents that TC was in the clinical range for her aggressive behavior and anxiety-related problems. The mother#x02019;s initial response to this information was to elaborate on the areas where TC was aggressive, in plutarch on listening particular with her siblings. When the PC asked the and christianity essay mother about her biggest concerns related to TC#x02019;s fights with siblings, she initially minimized the problem by stating that TC would probably outgrow her aggressive behavior. The PC agreed that this was a possibility (rolling with resistance) and essays on listening then inquired about alternate outcomes.
When invited by plato essay, the PC to consider what would happen if TC did not #x0201c;outgrow#x0201d; the problem, the mother admitted to her fears that TC and siblings might seriously hurt each other #x0201c;by accident.#x0201d; Mrs. Smith then elaborated on several parenting strategies she and an example on english her husband had tried without success. The PC affirmed their efforts and then offered a normalizing statement about the parents#x02019; struggles with TC. Next, the PC discussed the potential usefulness of additional or new parenting strategies to address TC#x02019;s problem behavior.
The PC also provided information about TC#x02019;s likely behavioral trajectory (i.e., behavior problems would likely get worse) and the benefits of early intervention versus #x0201c;wait and see.#x0201d; The PC utilized observational data about TC#x02019;s observed defiance and noncompliance to essay, underscore the seriousness of the concerns about essay, her conduct problems. In addition, the PC and parents discussed TC#x02019;s fearfulness and plato and christianity anxiety, as reported by the mother and on listening observed by the PC. The mother and father expressed moderate concern here and were able to identify some ways in which TC#x02019;s fearfulness is a problem for them, including her #x0201c;clinginess#x0201d; and inability to sleep through the plato essay night in her own bed. PC also reported on TC#x02019;s strengths, most notably her language skills and positive affect when spending time with her mother. TC#x02019;s language development was presented as a positive indicator of her ability to learn new behavior and respond to research paper on media, her parent#x02019;s requests.
In addition, the PC worked to enhance the essay parent#x02019;s understanding that a positive relationship with their daughter could motivate their daughter to change her behavior. When reviewing the profile sections on parent wellbeing, the PC informed the parents that the creative writing plans mother#x02019;s scores on self-report measures were indicative of clinical depression. Plato! The PC expressed concern about the severity of the violence mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms, and plato and christianity essay when PC inquired about of business essay, them, the mother began to cry and stated that she #x0201c;didn#x02019;t want to talk about it.#x0201d; The PC acknowledged that it would be difficult to parent when feeling so depressed. And Christianity Essay! The PC also provided her with information about the impact of maternal depression on child behavior, as well as effective interventions and possible resources. Later in the session, the PC indicated that her level of daily parenting stress was another area of concern and linked this to her depressed mood. In addition, the PC noted that the cover letter form harassment by her ex-husband was also a significant source of stress likely to be influencing her mood. Plato And Christianity Essay! The mother agreed to look into essay tope, intervention for her depression and and christianity stated her intention to resolve the situation with her ex-husband.
When the PC reported to the mother about her strengths, including her parenting confidence and relationship with TC, the mother responded with big smiles and verbalized appreciation. Acknowledgment of her strengths provided the mother with the cover opportunity to verbally elaborate on her positive skills and to express how much she values the relationship she has with her daughter and husband. Plato! Furthermore, the PC invited the parents to elaborate on the strengths of their marital relationship, stating that the qualities they mentioned (e.g., communicating well, ability to reach agreement about essay on tatya, challenging issues) provided a foundation from which they could parent more effectively as a team. The PC highlighted parent strengths with the aim of supporting parental efficacy and essay instilling hope for successful behavior change. A key element of the essays on listening feedback process is the goal setting that concludes the session. When the entire profile has been reviewed, the PC offers the parents a summary that highlights the strengths and areas of concern. In this case, the plato essay PC revisited the concerns about the tope mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and linked them to other areas of stress and challenges in parenting. The PC also highlighted the parents#x02019; concerns about TC#x02019;s behavior problems and and christianity essay noted the an example essay congruence with the observations of noncompliance and defiance. These concerns were presented with the acknowledgment and validation of child and parent strengths. The PC then asked the parents to consider the feedback and invited them to set goals for their child and themselves. They set three goals: (a) for the family to and christianity essay, move to a new neighborhood that was safer and removed from the ex-husband, (b) for the mother to meet with a psychiatrist to discuss antidepressant medication and other intervention options, and research on media violence (c) for the parents to work with their daughter to reduce her temper tantrums and aggressive behavior.
As part of the FCU, families are able to determine the amount and intensity of and christianity follow-up intervention, if any, they wish to receive. The intervention plan is derived in a collaborative manner, focusing on the issues identified in the feedback session and any other issues the parents want to address. In this case, the creative lesson PC met with both parents for 10 sessions following the feedback session. And Christianity! Sessions were scheduled for every other week. Early sessions focused on the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and harassment from her ex-husband. With regard to nonparenting issues, clinicians using the FCU model typically respond in a manner consistent with standard clinical practice, for example, utilizing cognitive behavioral techniques to short essay, deal with depression, offering advocacy and creating a safety plan for domestic violence. Nonparenting issues are addressed with the aim to support family functioning and cohesiveness, as appropriate. For example, a common service PC#x02019;s provide is referral and advocacy for accessing community resources. The FCU model works to facilitate connection with services in a family#x02019;s community to increase their network of essay support and self-sustainability. In this case, while the PC worked with the mother to short essay on tatya, reduce her depressive symptoms, she also assisted the mother in finding a psychiatrist.
Regarding the harassment from the mother#x02019;s exhusband, the essay PC explored possible responses with both parents. The family formalized their plans to move to a better neighborhood farther away from the ex-husband and completed this move within 3 months of the feedback session. Once these initial issues were addressed, the an example of a essay mother expressed willingness to work on plato and christianity essay TC#x02019;s disruptive behavior. Specifically, she was interested in reducing the an example reflective on english number of fights her children had during the day and increasing TC#x02019;s compliance. Over the plato and christianity essay course of the next seven sessions, the PC explored TC#x02019;s problem behaviors and their associated patterns with both parents by plutarch essays on listening, using several tools. Plato And Christianity Essay! These included the essay Good Behavior Game (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996); the use of incentives, praise, and encouragement; troubleshooting problem areas; and teaching the proper administration of a Time Out. In general, the intervention phase of the FCU prioritizes teaching parents better skills for positive reinforcement, including praise and encouragement. When parents choose to focus on parenting skills, the PC typically spends about 45 min on the chosen skill area, with the plato additional 15 min of the session addressing nonparenting concerns and generating a plan of action. Typically, sessions involve the parents and bring the child in on occasion for in vivo practice. Creative Writing School Lesson Plans! For each content area, which in this case included incentives, praise and encouragement, and essay limit setting, the intervention followed a typical process: (a) providing parents with the ross school of business 2011 rationale for the new skill; (b) having the PC demonstrate the new skill to parents; (c) having parents practice the new skill in session with role plays and making corrections; (d) assigning parents homework; and (e) reviewing homework, successes, and challenges during the next visit.
This model is drawn from plato essay, PMT (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005). For example, these parents expressed an interest and willingness to cover letter, learn more about the proper use of incentives. The PC first provided the parents a rationale for incentives, explaining that they can be used to plato, help children learn new behavior by rewarding positive behavior. The PC then invited the creative school lesson parents to generate a list of positive behaviors they would like to encourage in their daughter. And Christianity Essay! Once the parents generated this list, they were asked to select one behavior that they would like to focus on for the next week. The PC then invited the writing for high lesson plans TC into plato, the room and cover form demonstrated to the parents how a sticker could be used to encourage positive behavior. The PC provided parents with stickers and asked them to essay, practice this, thus clarifying an research paper on media violence effective way to explain and introduce the behavior to the TC. Another tool used to encourage good behavior is The Good Behavior Game.
The Good Behavior Game promotes prosocial behavior among young children by (a) asking the parent to tell their children that they can earn a reward if they can play nicely for plato and christianity, 10 min (with use of a timer), (b) establishing and on tatya tope describing reasonable and motivating rewards, (c) carefully explaining what #x0201c;play nicely#x0201d; means, (d) asking children to repeat back the instructions, and (e) using a sticker chart to and christianity, keep track of children#x02019;s positive play. In sum, the PC provided information about ross school of business 2011, motivating children, the benefits of praise and encouragement, the role of parent involvement, and key components of proactive parenting. In addition, the plato and christianity essay PC introduced the book Preventive Parenting with Love, Encouragement and Limits (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996) and provided ESMS project-based brochures and informational materials. Over the course of the next two assessment periods (when TC was age 3 and 4, respectively), both TC and the mother demonstrated marked improvement in several domains. At the age 3 assessment, TC#x02019;s behavior had improved to the extent that she was no longer in the clinical range for either the internalizing or externalizing scales on the Child Behavior Checklist, improvement that was maintained at the age 4 assessment.
In addition, the mother#x02019;s Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale score, which was well into the clinical range at the age 2 assessment, dropped to well within the normal range at the age 4 assessment. Short Essay Tope! In addition, observations of parent-child interaction revealed steady and stepwise improvement over the next 2 years, including marked improvements in plato and christianity essay child noncompliance and aggression, as well as maternal limit setting and proactive parenting (see Table 2 ). The FCU represents a cost-effective intervention that can lead to clinically meaningful results, such as improvements in child behavior and maternal wellbeing. The main components of the FCU are the GTKY and Feedback Sessions, which last 30 min and 90 min, respectively. Upon completion of the of a essay feedback session, parents can choose to participate in tailored follow-up sessions, if they wish. Even when more numerous follow-up sessions are involved, the FCU is time and cost effective.
To date, there has been no formal cost effectiveness assessment of the FCU. However, compared with other relatively brief and empirically validated interventions for child problem behavior, such as Forgatch#x02019;s PMT and and christianity essay Webster-Stratton#x02019;s family-based intervention, the FCU appears to require a fewer number of sessions to achieve beneficial effects. Conducting a cost assessment of the FCU is short on tatya, clearly an issue that merits attention in the near future. In the case study presented in this article, the PC spent a total of and christianity essay 18 hr of face-to-face time with the research paper violence Smith family in the 1st year. Essay! The time spent decreased steadily over the subsequent years of the creative writing for high school plans study, with a total of 8 hr of direct contact in and christianity the 2nd year and 2 hr of direct contact in the 3rd year. In terms of case preparation (scoring assessment measures, coding videotaped interactions), the plutarch essays on listening amount of plato and christianity time the PC spent in these activities also decreased over the years.
Activities not involving direct service delivery, including case preparation and scoring, required 10 hr of PC time in Year 1, 3#x000bd; hr in Year 2, and only 2 hr in Year 3. Thus, once the creative writing for high lesson process is learned and PCs become adept with the essay process of preparing for short tope, feedback sessions, the FCU becomes a potent and plato brief intervention. In terms of completing the home assessment, research assistants spent an letter average of 1 hr of travel time in addition to the 2#x000bd; hr home visit, for a total of 3#x000bd; to 4 hr per assessment. Whereas in actual practice the same individual might be responsible for conducting the assessment and the intervention, the and christianity essay research project elected to plutarch essays, have a different person serve these roles. The FCU was designed to and christianity, integrate research on essays risk factors for and christianity essay, children#x02019;s early conduct problems into an ecological, family-based intervention to prevent problem behavior among high-risk families with toddlers. The Smith family is a representative illustration of this innovative method to reach families at cover letter, key developmental transitions in at-risk environments. And Christianity! The Smith family presented with a complicated family history, a number of contextual risk factors, and a 2-year-old daughter who was demonstrating both conduct problems and emotional problems. Over the ross of business essay 2011 course of the FCU, the family showed improvement in several areas, including parenting and child problem behavior, as well reductions in maternal depression and contextual risk. This is consistent with the essay research showing that improvements in child conduct problems are accompanied by increases in the mother#x02019;s positive parenting and decreases in maternal depression (Dishion et al., in letter press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). This family was atypical in one respect#x02014;families in the ESMS participate in and christianity an average number of 3.7 in-person sessions with the PC per year, including the ross school of business 2011 GTKY and the Feedback sessions , whereas this family engaged in 12 sessions their first year, and then 3 to 4 in the following 2 years. After their 1st year of more intensive involvement, which was consistent with the family#x02019;s breadth of risk, the family followed the essay more typical pattern of direct contact with the PC.
One of the strengths of this health-maintenance model is the repeated nature of assessment and intervention. The FCU model involves yearly #x0201c;check-ups,#x0201d; which provide clinicians with the unique opportunity to collaboratively track family and child behavior over time and continue to motivate families to change persistent areas of difficulty. For example, it is not uncommon for a family to minimize problems and decline intervention in letter form the 1st year and plato essay then engage in the intervention the next year when they discover that the problem behavior has not changed. With some frequency, during the age 3 GTKY, families are able to acknowledge the reality of a problem situation in their 2nd year that they were #x0201c;waiting to see#x0201d; about at the age 2 FCU. It is sometimes the repeated review of data, demonstrating that without intervention these problems persist and school of business often worsen over time that can elicit motivation from parents to take action. This phenomenon is an essential strength of the and christianity essay FCU approach: Through repeated regular contact with families using assessment-driven feedback aimed at essay on tatya tope, motivational change, families who would not usually seek intervention on plato their own are motivated to change . Cover Form! This change in motivation is essay, particularly important for toddlers at risk for early starting conduct problems based on their high probability of persistence (Shaw et al., 2003; Shaw, Lacourse, #x00026; Nagin, 2005). In addition, it is common for interventionists to spend time working with basic issues related to safety and tope harm reduction early in intervention (e.g., excessive conflict between divorced spouses).
We find that this initial work sets the foundation for establishing trust in the PC, for families to be open to viewing their child#x02019;s behavior more realistically, and for families#x02019; willingness to learn new child management strategies. It is plato and christianity, important to note that the FCU can be adapted and tailored for use in a range of service settings such as the public school environment or community-based clinic (Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). For example, interventionists may choose to focus the assessment primarily on school-related behavior or only on the child#x02019;s behavior in the home. In addition, the assessment portion of the FCU could be shortened to make it easier to deliver in a typical mental health clinic or school setting. The content of the FCU can also be tailored to the needs of different developmental stages (toddlerhood, school age, adolescent), client populations and specific issues. For example, the FCU has been adapted to examine the health-related behaviors of an example reflective essay on english children transitioning to adolescence, with a particular focus on children#x02019;s sleep, emotion regulation, and physical activity. In this #x0201c;health promotion#x0201d; version of the FCU, the assessment and follow-up interventions focus on plato essay youth#x02019;s sleep quality, level of physical activity, and emotion regulation as a set of domains that are relevant for navigating the challenges associated with this developmental stage.
In addition to showing intervention effects on child problem behavior, parenting, and maternal depression, the FCU has been found to be effective for ross school of business essay 2011, promoting change in a wide range of plato and christianity essay family structures, cultural backgrounds, and contextual risk factors as well as across a broad range of age groups (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). For example, the FCU is creative, currently being used with older children and plato and christianity essay adolescents in Oregon and with American Indian families living on a reservation. Perhaps the most novel feature of the letter form FCU is the flexibility it provides clinicians in tailoring interventions to the individual family#x02019;s challenges and strengths, as well as to the family#x02019;s perception of the child#x02019;s problem behavior. Plato! By integrating the use of motivational interviewing within an ecological framework and utilizing empirically validated methods for promoting change, the model also fits well with current conceptualizations of developmental psychopathology that recognize multiple risk factors and pathways leading to similar problematic outcomes for children (Richters #x00026; Cicchetti, 1993). One important issue for essays, the use of the information provided in plato essay this case study in clinical practice is that family participation might follow a different pattern or level of engagement outside of the research setting. ESMS families receive payment for their participation in the assessment and gift cards for their participation in the feedback session.
It remains to be seen whether the FCU will appeal to families in pediatric or other community settings without such incentives. In addition, retention of families over an example of a essay time may be more challenging in a traditional community setting, where staff may not have the time to search for families who have moved or to conduct follow-up phone calls. And Christianity! Presently, the creators of the essays FCU are considering innovative ways to apply this model more broadly and are working to tailor the assessment and feedback process so that it is more user friendly for both therapists and parents. Ideally, the FCU assessment can be reduced to about 35 to 45 min with the feedback session more finely tailored to specific family needs. Despite these limitations, we believe the FCU holds much promise for preventing the onset of child problem behavior across developmental status of the and christianity essay child, the type of child problem behavior, the family#x02019;s cultural and short socioeconomic background, and the setting for contact with families. Future follow-up studies of the ESMS efficacy trial will test whether intervention effects found for reductions in plato essay early child problem behavior and maternal parenting and depression will endure across time and setting as children transition to letter form, the school-age period. And Christianity! However, as such effects appear to be evident across adolescence for a similar sample of at-risk youth (Connell et al., in press), we are optimistic about the FCU#x02019;s effectiveness and use in other settings with other at-risk populations for promoting child and on listening family well-being.
Moreover, as the presented case illustrates, the FCU can be a powerful preventative intervention for families who might not otherwise seek services for and christianity, their children by addressing motivation and plutarch essays giving families flexible intervention plans that match their unique situation. This research was supported by grant DA16110 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the third, fourth, and fifth authors. We gratefully acknowledge the Early Steps staff and the families who participated in this project. This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Plato! Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is on listening, expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.
The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Anne M. Gill, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Luke W. Hyde, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Daniel S. Shaw, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Thomas J. Dishion, Department of Special Education, University of Oregon.
Melvin N. Wilson, Department of and christianity Psychology, University of Virginia.